• ARIF ULLAH HM Gyeongsang National University
  • LUCKY AKTER Department of Pharmacy, School of Life Sciences, North South University
  • SAYERA ZAMAN Department of Pharmacy, School of Life Sciences, North South University
  • FATEMATUJ JUHARA Department of Pharmacy, School of Life Sciences, North South University
  • SYED MOHAMMED TAREQ Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Southern University
  • RAJIB BHATTACHARJEE Department of Pharmacy, School of Life Sciences, North South University
  • HYE JIN CHUNG Gyeongsang National University


objective: To scientifically validate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic seed extract of Sterculia villosa Roxb. (SVME) in
animal models.
Methods: Analgesic activity of SVME was evaluated by the hot plate-induced pain model, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing response, and
formalin test in mice at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. A carrageenan-induced paw edema model was also used to evaluate anti-inflammatory
potential of SVME in rats at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg.
Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoid, gums and carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloid, reducing sugar, and terpenoids in
significant amounts. The SVME produced significant analgesic activity in the hot-plate test in mice at all the time points measured. Extracts of 250 and
500 mg/kg reduced dose-dependent acetic acid-induced writhing by 40.2% (p<0.01) and 59.8% (p<0.001), respectively. Significant inhibition
of formalin-induced pain was also observed, with inhibition of 62.1% (p<0.001) and 66.7% (p<0.001) in the early phase at dosages of 250 and
500 mg/kg, respectively, and 64.4% (p<0.01) and 70.3% (p<0.01) in the late stage at these dosages. SVME pretreatments showed significant antiinflammatory
edema at all the time points measured.
Conclusion: The results suggest that SVME possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These findings provide support use of this plant in
traditional medicine to treat pain and inflammation.
Keywords: Sterculia villosa Roxb., Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Carrageenan.


Author Biography

HYE JIN CHUNG, Gyeongsang National University

Assistant Professor

College of Pharmacy


1. Middleton E Jr, Kandaswami C, Theoharides TC. The effects of plant
flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart
disease, and cancer. Pharmacol Rev 2000;52(4):673-751.
2. Ricciotti E, FitzGerald GA. Prostaglandins and inflammation.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011;31(5):986-1000.
3. Rang HP, Dale M, Ritter J. Pharmacology. 4th ed. New York: Churchill
Livingstone; 2001.
4. Wallace JL, Vong L. NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage
and the design of GI-sparing NSAIDs. Curr Opin Investig Drugs
5. Ibrahim B, Sowemimo A, van Rooyen A, Van de Venter M. Antiinflammatory,
and antioxidant activities
Cyathula prostrata
Blume (Amaranthaceae). J
6. Namsa ND, Tag H, Mandal M, Kalita P, Das AK. An ethnobotanical study
of traditional anti-inflammatory plants used by the Lohit community of
Arunachal Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;125(2):234-45.
7. Kunwar RM, Shrestha KP, Bussmann RW. Traditional herbal medicine
in far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
8. Ullah HM, Tareq SM, Huq I, Uddin MB, Salauddin MD. Antimicrobial
and cytotoxic activity assessment of the aqueous methanolic and
pet-ether extract of the leaves of Mesua ferrea. Int J Pharm Sci Res
9. Ullah HM, Zaman S, Juhara F, Akter L, Tareq SM, Masum EH, et al.
Evaluation of antinociceptive, in-vivo and in-vitro anti-inflammatory
activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizome. BMC
Complement Altern Med 2014;14:346.
10. Zimmermann M. Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental
pain in conscious animals. Pain 1983;16(2):109-10.
11. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques
of Plant Analysis. 3rd ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 1998.
12. Siddiqui S, Verma A, Rather AA, Jabeen F, Meghvansi MK. Preliminary
phytochemicals analysis of some important medicinal and aromatic
plants. Adv Biol Res 2009;3(5-6):188-95.
13. Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Mortier F, Vinche A, Younos C. Antiinflammatory

procumbens. Planta Med 1992;58(2):117-23.
14. Ojewole JA. Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic
Sclerocarya birrea
(A. Rich.) Hochst.
extract in mice and rats. Phytother Res 2004;18(8):601-8.
15. Koster R, Anderson M, De Beer EJ. Acetic acid for analgesic screening.
Fed Proc 1959;18:412-6.
16. Owoyele BV, Olaleye SB, Oke JM, Elegbe RA. Anti-inflammatory
and analgesic activities of leaf extracts of Landolphia owariensis. Afr J
Biomed Res 2001;4(3):131-3.
17. Altun ML, Çitoğlu GS, Yılmaz BS, Özbek H. Antinociceptive
and anti-inflammatory activities of Viburnum opulus. Pharm Biol
18. Mbagwu HO, Anene RA, Adeyemi OO. Analgesic, antipyretic and
anti-inflammatory properties of Mezoneuron benthamianum Baill
(Caesalpiniaceae). Nig Q J Hosp Med 2007;17(1):35-41.
19. Shibata M, Ohkubo T, Takahashi H, Inoki R. Modified formalin test:
characteristic biphasic pain response. Pain 1989;38(3):347-52.
20. Viana GS, do Vale TG, Rao VS, Matos FJ. Analgesic and antiinflammatory
of two chemotypes
of Lippiaalba: A

Pharm Biol 1998;36(5):347-51.
21. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind
paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp
Biol Med 1962;111:544-7.
22. Ramesh M, Rao YN, Rao AV, Prabhakar MC, Rao CS, Muralidhar N,
et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid
isolated from Caralluma attenuata. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62(1):63-6.
23. Kim HP, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS. Anti-inflammatory plant
flavonoids and cellular action mechanisms. J Pharmacol Sci
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 5, 2015, 287-291
Ullah et al.
24. Küpeli E, Yesilada E. Flavonoids with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive
Cistus laurifolius
L. leaves
procedures. J
25. Middleton E Jr. Effect of plant flavonoids on immune and inflammatory
cell function. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;439:175-82.
26. Li YD, Frenz CM, Chen MH, Wang YR, Li FJ, Luo C, et al. Primary
virtual and in vitro bioassay screening of natural inhibitors from
flavonoids against COX-2. Chin J Nat Med 2011;9(2):156-60.
27. Pathak D, Pathak K, Singla AK. Flavonoids as medicinal agents- Recent
advances. Fitoterapia 1991;62:371-85.
28. Pelzer LE, Guardia T, Osvaldo Juarez A, Guerreiro E. Acute and
chronic antiinflammatory effects of plant flavonoids. Farmaco
29. Barik BR, Bhowmik T, Dey AK, Patra A, Chatterjee A, Joy S, et al.
Premnazole, an isoxazole alkaloid of Premna integrifolia and Gmelina
arborea with anti-inflammatory activity. Fitoterapia 1992;63(4):295-9.
30. Chao J, Lu TC, Liao JW, Huang TH, Lee MS, Cheng HY, et al.
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol root extract of
Mahonia oiwakensis in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;125(2):297-303.
31. Calixto JB, Beirith A, Ferreira J, Santos AR, Filho VC, Yunes RA.
Naturally occurring antinociceptive substances from plants. Phytother
Res 2000;14(6):401-18.
32. Neukirch H, D’Ambrosio M, Sosa S, Altinier G, Della Loggia R,
Guerriero A. Improved anti-inflammatory activity of three new
terpenoids derived, by systematic chemical modifications, from the
abundant triterpenes of the flowery plant Calendula officinalis. Chem
Biodivers 2005;2(5):657-71.
33. Moody JO, Robert VA, Connolly JD, Houghton PJ. Anti-inflammatory
activities of the methanol extracts and an isolated furanoditerpene
constituent of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre (Menispermaceae).
J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104(1-2):87-91.
34. Chapman CR, Casey KL, Dubner R, Foley KM, Gracely RH, Reading
AE. Pain measurement: an overview. Pain 1985;22(1):1-31.
35. Hargreaves K, Dubner R, Brown F, Flores C, Joris J. A new and sensitive
method for measuring thermal nociception in cutaneous hyperalgesia.
Pain 1988;32(1):77-88.
36. Collier HO, Dinneen LC, Johnson CA, Schneider C. The abdominal
constriction response and its suppression by analgesic drugs in the
mouse. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1968;32(2):295-310.
37. Deraedt R, Jouquey S, Delevallée F, Flahaut M. Release of
prostaglandins E and F in an algogenic reaction and its inhibition. Eur J
Pharmacol 1980;61(1):17-24.
38. Berkenkopf JW, Weichman BM. Production of prostacyclin in mice
following intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, phenylbenzoquinone
and zymosan: its role in the writhing response. Prostaglandins
39. Duarte ID, Nakamura M, Ferreira SH. Participation of the sympathetic
system in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Braz J Med Biol Res
40. Hunskaar S, Fasmer OB, Hole K. Formalin test in mice, a useful
technique for evaluating mild analgesics. J Neurosci Methods
41. Hunskaar S, Hole K. The formalin test in mice: dissociation between
inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain. Pain 1987;30(1):103-14.
42. Tjølsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K. The formalin
test: an evaluation of the method. Pain 1992;51(1):5-17.
43. Abbott FV, Franklin KB, Westbrook RF. The formalin test: scoring
properties of the first and second phases of the pain response in rats.
Pain 1995;60(1):91-102.
44. Ahmadiani A, Fereidoni M, Semnanian S, Kamalinejad M, Saremi S.
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Sambucus ebulus
rhizome extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61:229-35.
45. Chen YF, Tsai HY, Wu TS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities
from roots of Angelica pubescens. Planta Med 1995;61(1):2-8.
46. Morris CJ. Carrageenan-induced paw edema in the rat and mouse.
Methods Mol Biol 2003;225:115-21.
47. Salvemini D, Wang ZQ, Wyatt PS, Bourdon DM, Marino MH,
Manning PT, et al. Nitric oxide: a key mediator in the early and late
phase of carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation. Br J Pharmacol
48. Seibert K, Zhang Y, Leahy K, Hauser S, Masferrer J, Perkins W,
et al. Pharmacological and biochemical demonstration of the role of
cyclooxygenase 2 in inflammation and pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
369 Views | 394 Downloads
How to Cite
HM, A. U., L. AKTER, S. ZAMAN, F. JUHARA, S. M. TAREQ, R. BHATTACHARJEE, and H. J. CHUNG. “ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF STERCULIA VILLOSA ROXB.”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 8, no. 5, Sept. 2015, pp. 247-51,
Original Article(s)