OCCURRENCE OF VARIOUS BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI IN THE HOSPITAL EFFLUENT.
AbstractThis study was designed to understand the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Gram negative bacilli producing various beta lactamases in hospital effluents. A total of 121 Gram negative bacilli were isolated and identified by standard biochemical tests from 31 hospital effluent samples. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling of isolated bacteria was assessed by Kirby Bauer disc method. Detection of various (ESBL, AmpC and MBL) producing isolates were further carried out by various methods. From the isolated bacteria, E.coli was predominant (37.19%) followed by Pseudomonas spp. (22.31%) Klebsiella spp. (19.83%) Non fermentative gram negative bacilli (NFGNB-10.74%), Enterobacter spp. (6.61%) and others (3.30 %). The present study suggests that although waste water treatment reduces the number of bacteria however, there is chance of antimicrobial resistant organisms in the hospital effluent. Hospitals should take sanitary measures to prevent the spread of multi drug resistant bacteria including beta-lactamases resistant strains transfer between hospital and the environment. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in hospitals should be reduced.
2. Kelch WJ, Lee JS. Antibiotic resistance patterns of gram negative bacteria isolated from environmental sources. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1978; 36(3), 450â€“56.
3. French GL, Ling J, Chow KL, Mark KK. Occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistance and R-plasmid in gram negative bacteria isolated from fecally contaminated freshwater streams in Hong Kong. Epidemiology and Infection 1987; 98(3), 285â€“99.
4. Ogan MT, Nwiika DE. Studies on the ecology of aquatic bacteria on the Lower Niger delta: multiple antibiotic resistance among the standard plate count organisms. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 1993; 74(5), 595â€“602.
5. Young HK. Antimicrobial resistance spread in aquatic environments. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1993; 31(5), 627â€“35.
6. Grabow WO, Prozesky OW. Drug resistance of coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1973; 3(2), 175-80.
7. Schwartz T, Kohnen W, Jansen B, Obst U. Detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in wastewater, surface water and drinking water bio films. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2003; 43(3), 325-35.
8. Saini S, Das BK, Kapil A, Nagarajan, SS, Sarma, RK. The study of bacterial flora of different types in hospital waste: evaluation of waste treatment at AIIMS Hospital, New Delhi. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2004; 35(4):986-89.
9. Kummerer, K. Antibiotics in the aquatic environment- a review- Part I, Chemosphere, 2009; 75(4), 417-34.
10. Sharma DR, Pradhan B, Mishra SK. Multiple drug resistance in bacteria isolates from liquid wastes generated in central hospitals of Nepal. Kathmandu university Medical Journal 2010; 8(29), 40-44.
11. Abdulaziz Yahya Al-Ghamdi. Review on hospital wastes and its possible treatments. Egyptian. Academic Journal of Biological Sciences 2011; 3(1): 55-62.
12. Levy SB, Marshall B, Schluederberq S, Rowse D, Davis J. High frequency of antimicrobial resistance in human fecal flora. Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy 1988; 32(12), 1801â€“06.
13. Osterblad M, Leistvuo T, Huovinen, P. Screening for antimicrobial resistance in fecal samples by the replica plating method. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995; 33(12), 3146â€“49.
14. Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PHA, Staley JT, Williams ST, (1994). Group 11. Oxygenic phototrophic bacteria. In Hensyl WR (ed.), Bergeyâ€™s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 377â€“425.
15. Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standard disc diffusion method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 1966; 45(4), 493-96.
16. Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute: Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twenty second informational supplement. Wayne, PA, USA: CLSI: M100-S22. 2012
17. Philip Coudron, E. Inhibitor-based methods for detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in Klebsiella spp. Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 43(8), 4163-67.
18. Philip Coudron E, Moland ES, Thomson KS. Occurrence and detection of AmpC beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates at a Veterans Medical Center. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 38(5), 1791-96.
19. Yong D, Lee K, Yum JH, Shin HB, Rossolini, GM, Chong Y. Imipenem-EDTA disk method for differentiation of metallo- Î²-lactamase-producing clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2002; 40(10), 3798-801.
20. Hancock RE. Alterations in outer membrane permeability. Annual Review of Microbiology 1984; 38, 237â€“64.
21. Nikaido H. Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability. Microbiological Reviews, 1985; 49, 1â€“32.
22. Vaara M. Agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane. Microbiological Reviews 1992; 56(3), 395â€“411.
23. Ayse Bastopcu, Halil Yazgi, M. Hamidullah Uyanik, Ahmet Ayyildiz. Evaluation of quinolone resistance in Gram negative bacilli isolated from community- and hospital-acquired infections. The Eurasian Journal of Medicine 2008; 40, 58-61.
24. Kummerer K, Henninger A. Promoting resistance by the emission of antibiotics from hospitals and households into effluent, Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2003; 9(12), 1203-14.
25. Horii T, Arakawa Y, Ohta M, Ichiyama S, Wacharotayankun R, Kato N. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type Î²-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad spectrum Î²- lactams including moxalactam. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1993; 37, 984 â€“ 90.
26. Jean SS, Teng LJ, Hsueh PR., Ho SW, Luh K.T. Antimicrobial susceptibilities among clinical isolates of extended-spectrum cephalosporin- resistant Gram-negative bacteria in a Taiwanese University Hospital. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2002; 49: 69-76.
27. Gupta, V. An update on newer beta-lactamases. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2007; 126(5), 417-27.
28. Chatterjee SS, karmacharya R, Madhup SK, Gautam V, Das A, Ray P. High prevalence of co-expression of newer Î²-lactamases (ESBLs, Amp-C-Î²-lactamases, and metallo-Î²-lactamases) in gram-negative bacilli. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2010; 28(3), 267-68.
29. Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo Kevin S. Lang Timothy M, LaPara Gerardo Gonzalez Randall S. Singer: Evaluating the Effects of Chlortetracycline on the Proliferation of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in a Simulated River Water Ecosystem. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73 (7), 5421-25.
30. Khachatou rians GG. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1998; 159(9), 1129-36.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.