ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY,TOTAL PHENOL,FLAVONOID,ALKALOID,TANNIN AND SAPONIN CONTENTS OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF SALVINIA MOLESTA D.S.MITCHELL
Objective:The main aim of the study was to screen leaf extracts of Â Salvinia molesta ,a fresh water weed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and also Â to quantify total phenol,flavonoid,alkaloid.tannin and saponin contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations.
Methods:Qualitative and quantitative analyses ofÂ significant phytochemicals were performed by standard methods.The antioxidant activity was evaluated using extracts of aqueous, ethanol, methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether by DPPH assay.Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), Gallic acid (GA) and Quercetin (Q) were taken as standard.
Results:Among the five different solvents, maximum antioxidant activity of salvinia molesta was found in ethanolic extract (90.3%) followed by other solvents.Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method was 9.84 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g and the total flavonoid contents as measured by aluminium chloride method was 10.89 mg Quercetin Equivalents (QE)/g.Alkaloids,tannins and saponins were measured by standard methods and found in significantly high ranges exhibiting a rich source of phytochemical constituents ensuring the plant as a useful therapeutic agent.
Conclusion:Salvinia molesta a fast growing fresh water weed,also abundantly available in nature possess significant antioxidant activity and hence can be used as an potent therapeutic agent.
Key words : Salvinia molesta, antioxidant activity, Total phenol ,Flavonoid,Alkaloid,Tannin and Saponin.
1.World health organization regional office for the western pacific. Research guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines.Manila, World Health organization regional office for the western pacific, 1993.
2. Mukherjee P. K, Wahile A (2006). Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicines. J Ethnopharmacol., 103: 25-35.
3. Barbosa L. N, Rall V. L, Fernandes A. A, Ushimaru P. I, da Silva Probst I, Fernandes A, Jr. (2009). Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat. Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 6: 725-728.
4. Halliwell B and Gutteridge JMC (1990). Role of free-radicals and catalitic metal ions in human disease: an overview. Methods Enzymol. 186: 1-85.
5. Miller, A.L.1996. Antioxidant flavonoids:structure, function and clinical usage.Altern. Med. Rev., 1:103-111.
6.Kalita, P., K.M. Pratab and K.M. Ashis, 2007. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of four unexplored aquatic weeds from northeast India for the formulation of cost-effective fish feeds.foodChem.,103:204-209.
7. Lahdesaki, P., 1986. Free amino acid in the leaves of Salvinia natans and Azolla filiculoidesgrownin light and dark. Physiol. Plant., 21: 1097-1103.
8. SFA Public Affairs (11 July 2011). "SFA researchers discover cancer-treating potential of invasive plant | News from 2011 | SFASU". July 2011
9.Pizzale, L., Bortolomeazzi, R., Vichi, S.and Conte, L.S. 2002. Antioxidant activity of sage and oregano extracts related to their phenolic compound content. Journal of the Science of Food and
Agriculture 82: 1645â€“1651.
10. George, H., Teng, C.M., Wu, C.L. and Ko, F.N. 1996. Marchantin H as a natural antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Arch. of Biochem. and Biophys.334:18- 26.
11. Lee, S.E., Hwang, H.J. and Ha, J.S. 2003.Screening of medicinal plant extracts for Antioxidant activity. Life Sci. 73:167-179.
12. Slinkard K. and Singleton V.L. 1977.Total phenol analysis: automation andcomparison with manual Methods, Am.J. Enol. Vitic. 28, 49-55.
13. Mervat, M. M. Far, E.l., Hanan, A. and Taie, A. 2009. Antioxidant Activities,Total Anthocyanins, Phenolics andFlavonoids Contents of Some Sweetpotato Genotypes under Stress of Different Concentrations of Sucrose and Sorbitol. Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci.,3: 3609-3616.
14. Broadhurst RB, jones WT. Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1978;48(3): 788â€“794.
15. Obadoni, B.O., Ochuko, P.O., (2001): Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Glob.J. Pure Appl. Sci., 86: 2003-2008
16. Harborne, J.B., (1973): Phytochemical methods, London. Chapman and Hall, Ltd., Pp. 49-188.
17. KÃ¤hkÃ¶nen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, Heinonen
M: Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds.J Agri Food Chem 1999, 1999(47):3954â€“3962.
18. Naczk M, Shahidi F: Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. JChromatogr A 2004, 1054:95â€“111.
19. Di Carlo G, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F: Flavonoids: old and new aspects of a class of natural therapeutic drugs. Life Sci 1999, 65:337â€“353.
20. Montoro P, Braca A, Pizza C, De Tommasi N: Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from different plant species. Food Chem 2005, 92:349â€“355.
21. Bravo L: Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism and nutritional significance. Nutr Reviews 1998, 56:317â€“333.
22. M.K. Oladunmoye. Immunomodulatory International journal of tropical medicine,
(2006), 1 (4), 152-155.
23.Hassan SB, Gullbo J, Hu K, Berenjian S, Morein B, Nygren P: The nanoparticulate quilaja saponin BBE is selectively active towards renal cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res 2013, 33(1):143-151
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.