FORMULATION OF SERUM GEL CONTAINING ANGELICA KEISKEI LEAF EXTRACT AS AN ANTIOXIDANT AND TYROSINASE ENZYME INHIBITOR
Keywords:Angelica keiskei extract, Serum gel, Antioxidant, Tyrosinase enzyme inhibitor
Objective: The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the efficacy of Angelica keiskei (AK) leaf extract in serum gel as an antioxidant and tyrosinase enzyme inhibitor.
Methods: The leaves of AK were extracted using the maceration method, while the antioxidant and tyrosinase enzyme inhibitory activities were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and L-Tyrosine as assay and substrate, respectively. Subsequently, the extract was formulated into serum gel and evaluated for physical stability, antioxidant and inhibitory activity to tyrosinase enzyme.
Results: The results showed that AK leaf extract has antioxidant activity, with an IC50 value = 7.73 mg/ml, while the tyrosinase enzyme inhibitory power had an IC50 value = 500 mg/ml. Based on physical stability, the serum gel was stable after 28 d of storage. The serum gel of AK leaf extract also showed antioxidant activity and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition with IC50 value of 16.68 mg/ml and 741.62 mg/ml, respectively.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the serum gel of AK leaf extract has potential as a skin lightening agent and is safe for use as a topical preparation.
Willis I, Kligman A, Epstein J. Effects of long ultraviolet rays on human skin: photoprotective or photoaugmentative? J Invest Dermatol 1972;59:416-20.
Budiman A, Praditasari A, Rahayu D, Aulifa DL. Formulation of antioxidant gel from black mulberry fruit extract (Morus nigra L.). J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2019;11:216-22.
Di Petrillo A, Gonzalez Paramas AM, Era B, Medda R, Pintus F, Santos Buelga C, et al. Tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant properties of Asphodelus microcarpus extracts. BMC Complem Altern Med 2016;16:453.
Budiman A, Khaira N, Aulifa DL. Peel-off gel formulation from black mulberries (Morus Nigra L.) leaves extract as a tyrosinase inhibitor. Int J Drug Delivery Technol 2019;9:525-9.
Adhikari A, Devkota HP, Takano A, Masuda K, Nakane T, Basnet P, et al. Screening of nepalese crude drugs traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation: in vitro tyrosinase inhibition. Int J Cosmetic Sci 2008;30:353-60.
Li L, Aldini G, Carini M, Chen CYO, Chun HK, Cho SM, et al. Characterisation, extraction efficiency, stability and antioxidant activity of phytonutrients in Angelica keiskei. Food Chem 2009;115:227-32.
Nerya O, Musa R, Khatib S, Tamir S, Vaya J. Chalcones as potent tyrosinase inhibitors: the effect of hydroxyl positions and numbers. Phytochem 2004;65:1389-95.
Jyothi D, Koland M. Formulation and evaluation of an herbal anti-inflammatory gel containing Trigonella foenum greacum seed extract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:41-4.
Budiman A, Rusnawan DW, Yuliana A. Antibacterial activity of Piper betle L. extract in cream dosage forms against Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acne. J Pharm Sci Res 2018;10:493-6.
Pourmorad SJ, Hosseinimehr, Shahabimajd N. Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of some selected iranian medical plants. Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5:1142-5.
Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolos by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2003;10:178–82.
Budiman A, Aulifa DL, Kusuma ASW, Kurniawan IS, Sulastri A. Peel-off gel formulation from black mulberries (Morus nigra L.) extract as an anti-acne mask. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 2017;7:1-8.
Shaalan EA, Canyon D, Younes MW, Abdel Wahab H, Mansour AH. A review of botanical phytochemicals with mosquitocidal potential. Environ Int 2005;31:1149-66.
de Freitas MM, Fontes PR, Souza PM, Fagg CW, Guerra EN, de Medeiros Nóbrega YK, et al. Extracts of Morus nigra L. leaves standardized in chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin: tyrosinase inhibition and cytotoxicity. PloS One 2016;11:e0163130.
Jin Q, Yang J, Ma L, Cai J, Li J. Comparison of polyphenol profile and inhibitory activities against oxidation and α‐glucosidase in mulberry (genus Morus) cultivars from China. J Food Sci 2015;80:C2440-51.
Shahidi F, Wanasundara PKJPD. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1992;32:67-103.
Fidrianny I, Suhendy H, Insanu M. Correlation of phytochemical content with an antioxidant potential of various sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in West Java, Indonesia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2018;8:25-30.
Arung ET, Furuta S, Sugamoto K, Shimizu K, Ishikawa H, Matsushita YI, et al. The inhibitory effects of representative chalcones contained in Angelica keiskei on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. Nat Prod Commun 2012;7:1007-10.
Lee JH, Mei HC, Kuo I, Lee TH, Chen YH, Lee CK. Characterizing tyrosinase modulators from the roots of Angelica keiskei using tyrosinase inhibition assay and UPLC-MS/MS as the combinatorial novel approach. Molecules 2019;24:3297.
Li L, Ben Y, Yuan S, Jiang S, Xu J, Zhang X. Efficacy, stability, and biosafety of sifuvirtide gel as a microbicide candidate against HIV-1. PloS One 2012;7:e37381.
Benson HA. Transdermal drug delivery: penetration enhancement techniques. Curr Drug Delivery 2005;2:23-33.
Patil PM, Wankhede SB, Chaudhari PD. Stability-indicating HPTLC method for simultaneous determination of Ketoprofen, methylparaben and propylparaben in gel formulation. J Pharm Res 2013;6:945-53.
Dey S, Mazumder B, Patel JR. Enhanced percutaneous permeability of acyclovir by DMSO from topical gel formulation. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2009;1:13-8.
Shukr M, Metwally GF. Evaluation of topical gel bases formulated with various essential oils for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Trop J Pharm Res 2013;12:877-84.
Lakshmana PS, Shirwaikar A, Shirwaikar A, Kumar A. Evaluation of rosin as a cream base for topical ketoconazole preparation. Pharm Res 2009;8:89-92.
Sareen R, Bhardwaj V, Mehta V, Sharma A. Topical gel incorporated with non-ionic surfactant based solid lipid microspheres of ketoprofen: physicochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory evaluation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;7:200-6.
Yadav V, Jadhav P, Dombe S, Bodhe A, Salunkhe P. Formulation and evaluation of microsponge gel for topical delivery of an antifungal drug. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:30-7.