EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON SHORT-AND LONG-TERM MEMORY IN ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS
Keywords:Aerobic exercise, Short-term memory, Long-term memory
Objective: Memory is an essential function of cognition in humans, but an age- and disease-related deterioration of this function is common. The currently known treatments have high failure rates, and thus, the slowing down of memory degeneration at an early age is the preferred preventive approach. Exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been proven to enhance memory via various pathways, such as neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and growth factor expression. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of aerobic exercise on short-term and long-term memory function in rats.
Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats aged 7 mo were randomly distributed into four groups: Control, short-term memory (C-S); Control, long-term memory (C-L); Aerobic, short-term memory (A-S); and Aerobic, long-term memory (A-L). The aerobic groups received exercise treatment for 30 min each five times per week, at a treadmill speed of 20 m/min. The treatment duration was 8 w. Short-term memory was assessed using the forced alteration Y-maze test, and long-term memory was assessed using the object location task.
Results: The findings showed that rats placed under the aerobic exercise regimen had significantly better long-term memory function at the end of 8 w (p = 0.006), while no significant difference was observed in short-term memory function between the aerobic exercise group and the control group.
Conclusion: The present study shows that aerobic exercise is beneficial in improving long-term memory function in rats.
Cassilhas RC, Tufik S, de Mello MT. Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory. Cell Mol Life Sci 2016;73:975–83.
Kandel ER. Principles of neural science. New York; Toronto: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2013. p. 1442.
Bear MF, Connors BW, Paradiso MA. Neuroscience: exploring the brain. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2016. p. 891.
Anderson ND. State of the science on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). CNS Spectr 2019;24:78–87.
Morris JK, Vidoni ED, Johnson DK, Van Sciver A, Mahnken JD, Honea RA, et al. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized controlled pilot trial. scholey a. editor. Plos One 2017;12:e0170547.
Loprinzi PD, Blough J, Ryu S, Kang M. Experimental effects of exercise on memory function among mild cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Phys Sportsmed 2019;47:21–6.
Padilla C, Andres P, Bajo T. Improving memory inhibition: a study of retrieval-induced forgetting, executive control, and chronic aerobic exercise. Front Behav Neurosci 2018;12:318.
Meeusen R. Exercise, nutrition and the Brain. Sports Med 2014;44(S1):47–56.
Pang RQ, Wang XF, Pei FF, Zhang W, Shen J, Gao X, et al. Regular exercise enhances cognitive function and intracephalic GLUT expression in Alzheimer's disease model mice. J Alzheimers Dis 2019;72:83-96.
Salari M, Sheibani V, Saadati H, Pourrahimi A, khaksarihadad M, Esmaeelpour K, et al. The compensatory effect of regular exercise on long-term memory impairment in sleep-deprived female rats. Behav Processes 2015;119:50–7.
Wang XQ, Wang GW. Effects of treadmill exercise intensity on spatial working memory and long-term memory in rats. Life Sci 2016;149:96–103.
Tsai SF, Ku NW, Wang TF, Yang YH, Shih YH, Wu SY, et al. Long term moderate exercise rescues age-related decline in hippocampal neuronal complexity and memory. Gerontology 2018;64:551–61.
Roig M, Nordbrandt S, Geertsen SS, Nielsen JB. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory: a review with meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2013;37:1645–66.
Yolanda S, Redjeki S, Andraini T, Santoso DIS, Ibrahim N, Mailani R. Combination of aerobic exercise and continuous environmental enrichment improves adult male rats’ spatial memory: a study on hippocampal insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) expression. Indones Biomed J 2019;11:210-6.
Santoso DII, Yolanda S, Redjeki S, Andraini T, Ivanali K. Continuous environmental enrichment and aerobic exercise improves spatial memory: focus on rat hippocampal BDNF and NGF. Comp Exerc Physiol 2019;16:1–8.
Yolanda S, Mailani R, Prasetyo SR, Widyani NMS, Juffry SK. Levels of hippocampal, liver, and plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male adult rats treated with a combination of aerobic exercise and continuous environmental enrichment. J Exerc Physiol 2019;22:11–21.
Wolf A, Bauer B, Abner EL, Ashkenazy Frolinger T, Hartz AMS. A comprehensive behavioral test battery to assess learning and memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice. Reddy H. editor. PLOS ONE 2016;11:e0147733.
Hattiangady B, Mishra V, Maheedhar Kodali, Shuai B, Rao X, Shetty AK. Object location and object recognition memory impairments, motivation deficits and depression in a model of gulf war illness. Front Behav Neurosci 2014;8:1–10.
Denninger JK, Smith BM, Kirby ED. Novel object recognition and object location behavioral testing in mice on a budget. J Vis Exp 2018;141:58593.
Kartinah NT, Yolanda S, Bariroh T. The effects of intensity and duration of aerobic exercise on spatial memory function in male wistar rats. Med J Indones 2019;28:223–7.
Aine CJ, Sanfratello L, Adair JC, Knoefel JE, Caprihan A, Stephen JM. Development and decline of memory functions in normal, pathological and healthy successful aging. Brain Topogr 2011;24:323–39.
Loughrey DG, Parra MA, Lawlor BA. Visual short-term memory binding deficit with age-related hearing loss in cognitively normal older adults. Sci Rep 2019;9:12600.
George EK, Reddy PH. Can healthy diets, regular exercise, and a better lifestyle delay the progression of dementia in elderly individuals? J Alzheimers Dis 2019;72:S37-S58.
Cechella JL, Leite MR, Rosario AR, Sampaio TB, Zeni G. Diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise enhance novel object recognition memory in old rats. AGE 2014;36:9666.
Yook JS, Rakwal R, Shibato J, Takahashi K, Koizumi H, Shima T, et al. Leptin in hippocampus mediates benefits of mild exercise by an antioxidant on neurogenesis and memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2019;116:10988–93.
Trigiani LJ, Royea J, Tong XK, Hamel E. Comparative benefits of simvastatin and exercise in a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. FASEB J 2019;33:13280-93.
Kim SE, Ko IG, Ji ES, Jin JJ, Hwang L, Kim SH, et al. Treadmill exercise alleviates circadian rhythm disruption-induced memory deficits by activation of glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent pathway. Int Neurourol J 2019;23(Suppl 1): S40-49.