LONG AND VERY LONG FATTY ACID FRACTIONATION IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS IN THE ACTIVE AND INACTIVE STATUS
Keywords:Disease activity, Fatty acid, LCFA, SLE, VLCFA
Objective: Flare in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an exacerbation of SLE clinical features that were earlier quiescent. The disease activity changes from inactive to active with an increase of several immunological profiles; the rise of immune activity induces a metabolic shift in SLE patients. The previous study aimed to investigate the long and very long fatty acid fractions (LCFA and VLCFA) in the active and inactive statuses of SLE patients and showed there were dynamic changes in fatty acid fractions in SLE patients, compared to healthy subjects. The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate LCFA and VLCFA in the active and inactive condition of SLE patients.
Methods: Four serum samples of active and inactive statuses from the same SLE patients were used in this study. Serum LCFA and VLCFA fractions were analyzed by a 7890 Gas Chromatography (GC) System 5977 Mass Selective Detector (MSD).
Results: All of the LCFA and VLCFA fractions were increased in the active condition, compared to SLE patients in inactive, although they were statistically not different (p>0.05). The total fatty acid fraction was 38% higher in active condition compare to inactive. The prominent increase of fatty acid fractions was alpha-linolenic acid (inactive vs. active: 23.25±17.97 vs 48.25±38.58 μmol/l), oleic acid (1300±190.4 vs 1774±866.3 μmol/l) and myristic acid (31.25±12.76 vs 59.25±40.4 μmol/l).
Conclusion: The serum of LCFA and VLCFA fractions in SLE patients tend to increase in active conditions.
Stojan G, Petri M. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018;30:144–50.
Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Situasi Lupus di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusdatin Kemenkes RI; 2017.
Hamijoyo L, Candrianita S, Rahmadi AR, Dewi S, Darmawan G, Suryajaya BS, et al. The clinical characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in Indonesia: a cohort registry from an Indonesia-based tertiary referral hospital. Lupus 2019;28:1604–9.
Munroe ME, Vista ES, Guthridge JM, Thompson LF, Merrill JT, James JA. Proinflammatory adaptive cytokine and shed tumor necrosis factor receptor levels are elevated preceding systemic lupus erythematosus disease flare. Arthritis Rheumatol 2014;66:1888–99.
Ferreira HB, Pereira AM, Melo T, Paiva A, Domingues MR. Lipidomics in autoimmune diseases with main focus on systemic lupus erythematosus. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019;174:386–95.
Yan B, Huang J, Zhang C, Hu X, Gao M, Shi A, et al. Serum metabolomic profiling in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus by GC/MS. Mod Rheumatol 2016;26:914–22.
Shin TH, Kim HA, Jung JY, Baek WY, Lee HS, Park HJ, et al. Analysis of the free fatty acid metabolome in the plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and fever. Metabolomics 2017;14:14.
Rodwell VW, Bender DA, Botham KM, Kennelly PJ, Weil PA. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry. 31st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2018.
Posadas Romero C, Torres Tamayo M, Zamora Gonzalez J, Aguilar Herrera BE, Posadas Sanchez R, Cardoso Saldana G, et al. High insulin levels and increased low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:160–5.
Urquizu Padilla M, Balada E, Chacon P, Perez EH, Vilardell Tarres M, Ordi Ros J. Changes in lipid profile between flare and remission of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study. J Rheumatol 2009;36:1639–45.
Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40:1725.
Gladman DD, Ibanez D, Urowitz MB. Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000. J Rheumatol 2002;29:288–91.
Ren J, Mozurkewich EL, Sen A, Vahratian AM, Ferreri TG, Morse AN, et al. Total serum fatty acid analysis by GC-MS: assay validation and serum sample stability. Curr Pharm Anal 2013;9:331–9.
Lagerstedt SA, Hinrichs DR, Batt SM, Magera MJ, Rinaldo P, McConnell JP. Quantitative determination of plasma c8-c26 total fatty acids for the biochemical diagnosis of nutritional and metabolic disorders. Mol Genet Metab 2001;73:38–45.
Abdelmagid SA, Clarke SE, Nielsen DE, Badawi A, El-Sohemy A, Mutch DM, et al. Comprehensive profiling of plasma fatty acid concentrations in young healthy Canadian adults. PLoS One 2015;10:e0116195.
Syamsunarno MR, Iso T, Hanaoka H, Yamaguchi A, Obokata M, Koitabashi N, et al. A critical role of fatty acid-binding protein 4 and 5 (FABP4/5) in the systemic response to fasting. PLoS One 2013;8:e79386.
Putri M, Syamsunarno MR, Iso T, Yamaguchi A, Hanaoka H, Sunaga H, et al. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015;457:520–5.
Samuel VT, Shulman GI. The pathogenesis of insulin resistance: integrating signaling pathways and substrate flux. J Clin Invest 2016;126:12–22.
Fritsche KL. The science of fatty acids and inflammation. Adv Nutr 2015;6:293S–301S.
Ormseth MJ, Swift LL, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raggi P, Solus JF, et al. Free fatty acids are associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance but not inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2013;22:26–33.
Blondeau N, Lipsky RH, Bourourou M, Duncan MW, Gorelick PB, Marini AM. Alpha-linolenic acid: an omega-3 fatty acid with neuroprotective properties–ready for use in the stroke clinic? Biomed Res Int 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/519830.
Sales Campos H, Souza PR, Peghini BC, da Silva JS, Cardoso CR. An overview of the modulatory effects of oleic acid in health and disease. Mini Rev Med Chem 2013;13:201–10.
Nelson DL, Lehninger AL, Cox MM. Lehninger principles of biochemistry. 5th ed. New York: WH Freeman; 2008.
German JB, Dillard CJ. Saturated fats: a perspective from lactation and milk composition. Lipids 2010;45:915–23.