• HERNITA TAURUSTYA Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia
  • SRI YUNITA Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5980-7525
  • YSRAFIL YSRAFIL Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Indonesia
  • NUKE PRATIWI Undergraduate of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia
  • ANINDITA RAHMATIAH Undergraduate of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia




Convalescent plasma, COVID-19, Effectivity, Neutralizing antibody, SARS‐CoV‐2, therapy


Objective: Recently, convalescent plasma (CP) therapy has shown promising evidence in the treatment of several serious contagious diseases, including SARS-CoV, Influenza and Ebola. We conducted a systematic review to extract data about using CP treatment for COVID-19 patients and it’s effectively.

Methods: The retrieval of studies was conducted according to Cochrane Collaboration and from electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and others (medRxiv and BioRxiv). Searching of the available evidence concerning CP treatment of COVID-19 patients was conducted in journal articles published between December 2019 and October 2020. The articles were further screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify the high-quality studies for analysis.

Results: A total of 18 CP studies were included in this review. We found variance regarding the effectiveness of CP in the reduction of mortality rate, length of stay, and increased discharging rate. Several findings show CP therapy is effective in increasing viral negativity, neutralizing antibodies to recipients, does not cause harmful adverse reactions and in some cases can improve clinical symptoms. This therapy is presently considered effective for generating good clinical outcomes when given early in the course of the disease.

Conclusion: The effectiveness of CP in terms of mortality, length of stay, and increased discharging patients is still debatable. However, CP therapy is effective in increasing the negativity of SARS-CoV-2 test, neutralizing antibody titer and is safe so it can be considered for COVID-19 patients. CP should not be given in the initial disease course but is recommended for the early disease course.


Download data is not yet available.


Astuti I, Ysrafil. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): an overview of viral structure and host response. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(4):407-12. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.020, PMID 32335367.

Ysrafil Y, Astuti I, Mus R, Gama NI, Rahmaisyah D, Nur’amalia R. A summary of coronavirus disease 2019: what we should know? Pharm Sci. 2020;26:S24-S35:S24-35. doi: 10.34172/PS.2020.82.

Viscusi WK. Pricing the global health risks of the COVID-19 pandemic. J Risk Uncertain. 2020:1-28. doi: 10.1007/s11166-020-09337-2, PMID 33162671.

Pak A, Adegboye OA, Adekunle AI, Rahman KM, McBryde ES, Eisen DP. Economic consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak: the need for epidemic preparedness. Front Public Health. 2020;8:241. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00241, PMID 32574307.

Rizkita LD, Martien R, Ysrafil Y, Astuti I. Chitosan nanoparticles mediated delivery of miR-106b-5b to breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Int J Appl Pharm. 2021;13(1):129-34.

Ysrafil Y, Mus R, Gama NI, Rahmaisyah D, Nur’amalia R. Emerging mutation in SARS-CoV-2 spike: widening distribution over time in different geographic areas. Biomed J. 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2021.07.003, PMID 34271250.

WHO. Coronavirus (COVID-19); 2020. Available from: https://who.sprinklr.com/ [Last accessed on 15 Nov 2021]

Singh M, Nagpal M, Singh V, Sharma A, Dhingra GA, Maman P, Puri V. COVID-19: epidemiology, pathogenicity and global updates. Int J App Pharm. 2020;12(5):16-28. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2020v12i5.38439.

Horton R. Offline: COVID-19 is not a pandemic. Lancet. 2020;396(10255):874. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32000-6, PMID 32979964.

Yadav UN, Rayamajhee B, Mistry SK, Parsekar SS, Mishra SK. A syndemic perspective on the management of non-communicable diseases amid the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries. Front Public Health. 2020;8:508. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00508, PMID 33102414.

Rasheed AM, Fatak DF, Hashim HA, Maulood MF, Kabah KK, Almusawi YA, Abdulamir AS. The therapeutic potential of convalescent plasma therapy on treating critically ill COVID-19 patients residing in respiratory care units in hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq. Infez Med. 2020;28(3):357-66. PMID 32920571.

Cheng Y, Wong R, Soo YO, Wong WS, Lee CK, Ng MH, Chan P, Wong KC, Leung CB, Cheng G. Use of convalescent plasma therapy in SARS patients in Hong Kong. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;24(1):44-6. doi: 10.1007/s10096-004-1271-9, PMID 15616839.

Sun M, Xu Y, He H, Zhang L, Wang X, Qiu Q, Sun C, Guo Y, Qiu S, Ma K. A potentially effective treatment for COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of convalescent plasma therapy in treating severe infectious disease. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;98:334-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.107, PMID 32634589.

Wu XX, Gao HN, Wu HB, Peng XM, Ou HL, Li LJ. Successful treatment of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection using convalescent plasma. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;41:3-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.10.009, PMID 26482389.

Florescu DF, Kalil AC, Hewlett AL, Schuh AJ, Stroher U, Uyeki TM, Smith PW. Administration of brincidofovir and convalescent plasma in a patient with Ebola virus disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(6):969-73. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ395, PMID 25991468.

Rajendran K, Krishnasamy N, Rangarajan J, Rathinam J, Natarajan M, Ramachandran A. Convalescent plasma transfusion for the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review. J Med Virol. 2020;92(9):1475-83. doi: 10.1002/ jmv.25961, PMID 32356910.

Agarwal A, Mukherjee A, Kumar G, Chatterjee P, Bhatnagar T, Malhotra P, PLACID Trial Collaborators. Convalescent plasma in the management of moderate covid-19 in adults in India: open-label phase II multicentre randomised controlled trial (PLACID Trial). Br Med J. 2020;371:m3939. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3939, PMID 33093056.

AlQahtani M, Abdulrahman A, Almadani A, Alali SY, Al Zamrooni AM, Hejab AH. Randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy against standard therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):9927. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-89444-5, PMID 33976287.

Avendano Sola C, Ramos Martinez A, Munez Rubio E, Ruiz Antoran B, Malo de Molina R, Torres F. Convalescent plasma for COVID-19: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial. medRxiv 2020:1-15.

Bajpai M, Kumar S, Maheshwari A, Chhabra K. Kale P, Gupta A. Efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy compared to fresh frozen plasma in severely ill covid-19 patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. medRxiv 2020:1-23.

Balcells ME, Rojas L, Le Corre N, Martínez Valdebenito C, Ceballos ME, Ferrés M. Early anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma in patients admitted for COVID-19: A randomized Phase II clinical trial. medRxiv 2020:1-25.

Gharbharan A, Jordans CCE, Geurtsvan Kessel C, den Hollander JG, Karim F, Mollema FPN. Convalescent plasma for COVID-19. A randomized clinical trial. medRxiv 2020:1-16.

Li L, Zhang W, Hu Y, Tong X, Zheng S, Yang J, Kong Y, Ren L, Wei Q, Mei H, Hu C, Tao C, Yang R, Wang J, Yu Y, Guo Y, Wu X, Xu Z, Zeng L, Xiong N, Chen L, Wang J, Man N, Liu Y, Xu H, Deng E, Zhang X, Li C, Wang C, Su S, Zhang L, Wang J, Wu Y, Liu Z. Effect of convalescent plasma therapy on time to clinical improvement in patients with severe and life-threatening COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324(5):460-70. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.10044, PMID 32492084.

Duan K, Liu B, Li C, Zhang H, Yu T, Qu J, Zhou M, Chen L, Meng S, Hu Y, Peng C, Yuan M, Huang J, Wang Z, Yu J, Gao X, Wang D, Yu X, Li L, Zhang J, Wu X, Li B, Xu Y, Chen W, Peng Y, Hu Y, Lin L, Liu X, Huang S, Zhou Z, Zhang L, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Deng K, Xia Z, Gong Q, Zhang W, Zheng X, Liu Y, Yang H, Zhou D, Yu D, Hou J, Shi Z, Chen S, Chen Z, Zhang X, Yang X. Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(17):9490-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2004168117, PMID 32253318.

Erkurt MA, Sarici A, Berber I, Kuku I, Kaya E, Ozgul M. Life-saving effect of convalescent plasma treatment in covid-19 disease: clinical trial from eastern Anatolia. Transfus Apher Sci. 2020;59(5):102867. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2020.102867.

Olivares Gazca JC, Priesca Marín JM, Ojeda Laguna M, Garces Eisele J, Soto Olvera S, Palacios Alonso A, Izquierdo Vega J, Chacon Cano R, Arizpe Bravo D, López Trujillo MA, Cantero Fortiz Y, Fernandez Lara D, Ruiz Delgado GJ, Ruiz Arguelles GJ. Infusion of convalescent plasma is associated with clinical improvement in critically ill patients with covid-19: a pilot study. Rev Invest Clin. 2020;72(3):159-64. doi: 10.24875/RIC.20000237, PMID 32584322.

Salazar E, Christensen PA, Graviss EA, Nguyen DT, Castillo B, Chen J, Lopez BV, Eagar TN, Yi X, Zhao P, Rogers J, Shehabeldin A, Joseph D, Leveque C, Olsen RJ, Bernard DW, Gollihar J, Musser JM. Treatment of coronavirus Disease 2019 patients with convalescent plasma reveals a signal of significantly decreased mortality. Am J Pathol. 2020;190(11):2290-303. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.08.001, PMID 32795424.

Ibrahim D, Dulipsingh L, Zapatka L, Eadie R, Crowell R, Williams K, Wakefield DB, Cook L, Puff J, Hussain SA. Factors associated with good patient outcomes following convalescent plasma in COVID-19: A prospective Phase II clinical trial. Infect Dis Ther. 2020;9(4):913-26. doi: 10.1007/s40121-020-00341-2, PMID 32951151.

Abolghasemi H, Eshghi P, Cheraghali AM, Imani Fooladi AA, Bolouki Moghaddam F, Imanizadeh S, Moeini Maleki M, Ranjkesh M, Rezapour M, Bahramifar A, Einollahi B, Hosseini MJ, Jafari NJ, Nikpouraghdam M, Sadri N, Tazik M, Sali S, Okati S, Askari E, Tabarsi P, Aslani J, Sharifipour E, Jarahzadeh MH, Khodakarim N, Salesi M, Jafari R, Shahverdi S. Clinical efficacy of convalescent plasma for treatment of COVID-19 infections: results of a multicenter clinical study. Transfus Apher Sci. 2020;59(5):102875. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2020.102875.

Altuntas F, Ata N, Yigenoglu TN, Bascı S, Dal MS, Korkmaz S. Convalescent plasma therapy in patients with COVID-19. Transfus Apher Sci. 2020, PMID 102955.

Omrani AS, Zaqout A, Baiou A, Daghfal J, Elkum N, Alattar RA, Bakdach D, Abusriwil H, Mostafa AM, Alhariri B, Ambra N, Khatib M, Eldeeb AM, Merenkov Z, Fawzi Z, Hmissi SM, Hssain AA, Coyle PV, Alsoub H, Almaslamani MA, Alkhal A. Convalescent plasma for the treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019: A preliminary report. J Med Virol. 2021;93(3):1678-86. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26537, PMID 32965715.

Wu Y, Hong K, Ruan L, Yang X, Zhang J, Xu J, Pan S, Ren L, Chen L, Huang C, Shang Y. Patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA benefit from convalescent plasma therapy: A retrospective study. Virol Sin. 2020;35(6):768-75. doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00281-8, PMID 32865701.

Zeng QL, Yu ZJ, Gou JJ, Li GM, Ma SH, Zhang GF, Xu JH, Lin WB, Cui GL, Zhang MM, Li C, Wang ZS, Zhang ZH, Liu ZS. Effect of convalescent plasma therapy on viral shedding and survival in patients with coronavirus Disease 2019. J Infect Dis. 2020;222(1):38-43. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa228, PMID 32348485.

Ng KT, Oong XY, Lim SH, Chook JB, Takebe Y, Chan YF, Chan KG, Hanafi NS, Pang YK, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK. Viral load and sequence analysis reveal the symptom severity, diversity, and transmission clusters of rhinovirus infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(2):261-8. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy063, PMID 29385423.

Tian X, Li C, Huang A, Xia S, Lu S, Shi Z, Lu L, Jiang S, Yang Z, Wu Y, Ying T. Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):382-5. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1729069, PMID 32065055.

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M, Janeway C. Janeway’s immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Publishing Science; 2012.

French MA, Moodley Y. The role of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19: healing in most, harm at times. Respirology. 2020;25(7):680-2. doi: 10.1111/resp.13852, PMID 32436320.

Li L, Tong X, Chen H, He R, Lv Q, Yang R, Zhao L, Wang J, Xu H, Liu C, Chen G, Chen S, Li C, Qiao J, Yang J, Wu Y, Liu Z. Characteristics and serological patterns of COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors: optimal donors and timing of donation. Transfusion. 2020;60(8):1765-72. doi: 10.1111/trf.15918, PMID 32627216.

Rojas M, Rodriguez Y, Monsalve DM, Acosta-Ampudia Y, Camacho B, Gallo JE, Rojas Villarraga A, Ramirez Santana C, Díaz Coronado JC, Manrique R, Mantilla RD, Shoenfeld Y, Anaya JM. Convalescent plasma in covid-19: possible mechanisms of action. Autoimmun Rev. 2020;19(7):102554. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102554.



How to Cite

TAURUSTYA, H., YUNITA, S., YSRAFIL, Y., PRATIWI, N., & RAHMATIAH, A. (2022). LESSONS AND NEW PERSPECTIVES: IS CONVALESCENT PLASMA THERAPY EFFECTIVE ON COVID-19 PATIENTS?. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(1), 50–57. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.42452



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)