• MANORMA Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19, Knowledge Park-2, Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India
  • RUPA MAZUMDER Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19, Knowledge Park-2, Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India
  • ANJNA RANI Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19, Knowledge Park-2, Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India
  • RAJAT BUDHORI Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19, Knowledge Park-2, Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India
  • AYUSHI KAUSHIK Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19, Knowledge Park-2, Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India



Ophthalmic formulations, diabetes mellitus, ocular complications, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular oedema


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder, whose prevalence is predicted to rise shortly. The present review focuses on the various ocular complications associated with DM, and the various ophthalmic formulation approaches developed to treat the same. Diabetic macular edema (DME), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma are some of the major vision-threatening complications linked to DM. The ocular route of drug delivery has undergone several advancements in recent decades, the introduction of various novel drug delivery systems (DDS), various modifications in the existing formulation approaches, development of custom-designed personalized medications, being some of the major developments introduced in the field of ocular drug delivery. Due to the application of state-of-the-art technologies in the field of innovations related to ocular DDS, patients have been immensely benefited by the current modes of ocular treatment imparting fewer side effects, enhanced penetration, sustained drug effect, and so on. The present review includes and emphasizes the gradual development that has occurred from the conventional ophthalmic dosage forms to the currently reported novel ocular drug delivery approaches along with the related patents and clinical research works.


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