• MAHMOUD H. TEAIMA Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • MOSTAFA I. GEBRIL Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Badr University in Cairo (BUC), Badr City, Cairo, 11829, Egypt
  • FATHY I. ABD ALLAH International Center for Bioavailability, Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Obour City 11828, Egypt
  • MOHAMED A. EL-NABARAWI Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt



Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Niosomes, Proniosomes


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has emerged as an epidemic that has affected millions of people globally in the last few decades. Conventional antidiabetic dosage forms have a lot of problems that necessitate searching for novel drug delivery systems to overcome these drawbacks. Niosomes and proniosomes have been used to carry a wide variety of antidiabetic drugs achieving controlled and sustained release which improves patient compliance. This review article describes the fundamental aspects of niosomes and proniosomes including their structural components, methods of preparation, advantages and drawbacks, characterization, factors affecting niosomes formation along with their application in treatment of diabetes. It also highlights the participation of other drug delivery systems in treatment of diabetes done mainly in the last decade.


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