Traditional Indian Herb Emblica Officinalis & Its Medicinal Importance
Emblica Officinalis (Amla, EO and E. officinalis) is one of the most important herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system, especially Ayurveda and also known as King of all medicinal plants. Emblica officinalis is famous Ayurvedic herb (the name means sour in Sanskrit) is one of the most useful medicines in the Indian pharmacopoeia, and is considered to be one of the strongest uvenatives (Rasayana), particularly for the blood, bones, liver and heart. It is an exceptionally rich source of vitamin C containing thirty times the amount found in oranges. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. Emblica officinalis (Amla) is widely used in the ayurvedic medicines and believed to increase defense /immune power against diseases. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the â€œfruitâ€. The fruit is rich in quercetin, phyllaemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin and vitamin C and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. A wide range of phyto-chemical components including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins have been shown to possesâ€™ useful biological activities. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of Emblica officinalis as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumour, antigenotoxic, antiinflammatory activities, anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, hair growth tonic, wound healing activities, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and many other traditional uses of the plant. The present study also includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary Phyto-Constituent and Physico-chemical evaluation.
Keywords: Amla, Emblica officinalis, Vitamin C, Ayurvedic Medicines, Hair Growth Tonic, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Phyto-Constituent, Physico-chemical, Macroscopy, Microscopy, Traditional Uses.
Ghosal S., V.K. Triphati and S. Chauhan. Active constituents of Emblica officinalis: Part 1- The chemistry and antioxidative effects of two new hydrolysable tannins, Emblicanin A and B. Indian J. of Chem 1996; 35B: 941-48.
Kumar Sampath KP. Recent trends in potential traditional Indian herbs Emblica officinalis and its medicinal importance. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012; 1(1):18-28.
Srivasuki KP. Nutritional and health care benefits of Amla. J Pharmacognosy 2012;3(2):141-51.
Zhang LZ, Zhao WH, Guo YJ, Tu GZ, Lin S, Xin LG. Studies on chemical constituents in fruits of Tibetan medicine.Phyllanthus emblica,ZhongguoZhong Yao ZaZhi 2003;28(10):940-43.
Udupa KN, Ayurveda for Promotion of Health, Journal of Ayurveda, 3, 1985.
Pushpendra Kumar Jain, Debajyoti Das, Puneet Jain. Evaluating Hair Growth Activity of Herbal Hair Oil. Int J PharmTech Res 2016; 9(3):321-27.
Madhuri S, Pandey G, Verma KS. Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of Emblica officinalis: an overview. Int Res J of Pharmacy 2011; 2(8):38-42.
Indian Medicinal Plants -A compendium of 500 species Part 3 by Orient Longan Publications 1997, 256-63.
Scartezzini, P., Antognoni, F., Raggi, M.A., Poli, F. and Sabbioni, C. Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol., 2006;104: 113-118.
Anthony, C. Emblica officinalis or Amla: The Ayurvedic Wonder.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopia of India, Govt. Of India, ministry of Health & family welfare, department of ISM & H 1(1):5-8.
Patel SS, Goyal RK. Emblica officinalis Geart: A Comprehensive Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Ethnomedicinal Uses. Res J Med Plant 2012; 6:6â€‘16.
Jain SK, akhurdiya DS. Anola: Potential fruit for processing Delhi Garden Mega 2000; 38(1):50-51.
Bharthakur NN, Arnold NP. Chemical analysis of the emblic (Phyllanthus emblica L) and its potential as a good sources. Scientia Horticult 1991; 47:99-105.
Arora S, Kaur K, Kaur S. Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 2003; (suppl 1):295-300.
Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S, Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Phytomedicine 2002; 9(2): 171-4.
Yi-Fei W, Ya-Fenga W, Xiao-Yana W, Zhea R,Chui-Wena Q, Yi-Chenga L, Kitazatoc K, Qing-Duan Q, Yan W, Li-Yun Z, Jin-Hua Z, Chong-Rene Y, Qinge L, Ying-June Z. Phyllaemblicin B inhibits Coxsackie virus B3 induced apoptosis and myocarditis. Antiviral Research 2009; 84: 150-58.
Rehman H, Yasin KA, Choudhary MA, Khaliq N, Rahman A, ChoudharyMI, Malik S. Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica, Natural Product Research 2007; 21(9): 775-81.
Jain SK, Khurdiya DS, Vitamin C enrichment of fruit juice based ready-to-serve beverages through blending of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalisGaertn.) juice, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 59(2), 2004, 63-6.
El-Desouky SK, Ryu SY, Kim YK, A new cytotoxic acylate dapigenin glucoside from Phyllanthus emblica L, Natural Product Research 2008; 22(1): 91-5.
Habib-ur-Rehman., K.A. Yasin, M.A. Choudhary, N. Khaliq, Atta-ur-Rahman., M.I. Choudhary and S. Malik. Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica. Nat Prod Res. 2007; 21(9): 775-81.
Khan KH. A Review- Roles of Emblica officinalis in medicine. Botany Res Int. 2009; 2 (4):218-28.
Thakur, R.S., Puri, H.S., Husain, Akhtar. Major Medicinal Plants of India. Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1989, Lucknow, India.
Kapoor LD. Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. CRC Press. Boca taton 1990.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian Plants. CDRI, Lucknow and Publications & Information Directorate, New Delhi, 1993.
Chopra, R.N., Nayer, S.C. and Chopra, I.C. (1956). In: Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR, New Delhi.
Jain PK, Joshi H, Dass DJ. Drug that causes hair loss and promotes hair growth - A review. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci 2012; 3(4):1476-82.
Sankaran M, Velusamy V, Mani K, Amla: a novel ayurvedic herb as a functional food for health benefitsâ€- A mini review, InternationalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5(1), 2013, 1-4.
Bhattacharya A, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Antioxidant activity of tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis in chronic stress induced changes in rat brain. Indian J Exp Biol 2000; 3(9):877-80.
Jeena KJ, Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Antitumor activity of Emblica officinalis. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 73(2-3):65-9.
P K Jain, H. Joshi. Coumarin: Chemical and pharmacological profile. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2012; 2(6):236-40. DOI:10.7324/JAPS.2012.2643
Veena KP, Shanthi, Sachdanandam P. The biochemical alterations following administration of Kalpaamruthaa and Semecarpus anacardium in mammary carcinoma. Chem Biol Interact 2006; 15; 161(1):69-78.
Pushpendra Kumar Jain, Arti Pandey. The Wonder of Ayurvedic Medicine - Nyctanthes Arbortristis. International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2016; 4(4):9-17.
Nadkarni KM, Nadkarni AK. Indian Materia Medica-with Ayurvedic, Unani-Tibbi, Siddha, Allopathic, Homeopathic, Naturopathic and Home remedies. Popular Prakashan Private Ltd., Bombay, India 2007; 2(1):480-84.
Saecd S Tariq P. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens. Pak J Pharm 2007; 20(1):32-5.
Satish S, Mohana DC, Raghavendra MP and Raveesha KA. Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus. J. Agri. Tech 2007; 3(1):109-19.
Hossain MM, Mazumder K, Hossen SMM, Tanmy TT and Rashid MJ. In vitro studies on antibacterial and antifungal activities of Emblica officinalis. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res 2012;3(4): 1124-27.
Bobbarala V, Katikala PK, Naidu KC and Penumajji S. Antifungal activity of selected plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger F2723. Indian J.Sci.Technol 2009;2(4): 87-90.
Liu G, XiongS, Xiang S, GuoCW, GeF, Yang CR, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Kitazato K, Antiviral activity and possible mechanisms of action of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against influenza A virus, Archives of Virology 2011;156:1359-69.
Sabu MC, Kuttan R. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81(2):155-60.
Pemminati S, H.N G, Shenoy AK, Sahu SS, Mishra S, Meti V and Vinod N. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extract of fruits of Emblica officinalis in mice. Int. J. App. Biol. Pharma. Technol 2010; 1(2): 449-54.
Asmawi MZ, Kankaanranta H, Moitanon E, Vapaatalo H. Anti-inflammatory activities of Emblica officinalis Gacrtn leaf extracts. J Pharm Pharmacol 1993; 45(6):58l-4.
Mahady GB. Medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11:2405â€‘27.
Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) prevents dyshpidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process. Br J Nutr 2007;97(6):1187-95.
Duan W, Yu Y, Zhang L. Antiatherogenic effects of phyllanthus emblica associated with corilagin and its analogue. Yakugaku Zasshi 2005;125(7):587-91.
Jose JK, Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis. Ethnopharmacol 2001;75(2-3):65-9.
Nosifova G, Mokry J, Hassan KM. Antitussivc activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaerln. (Euphorbiaceae). Phytomedicine 2003;10(6):583-9.
Zhang YJ, Nagao T, Tanaka T, Yang CR. Okabc H, Kouno I. Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from Phyllanthus Emblica. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27(2):251-5.
Mcnon LG, Kuttan R, Kuttan G. Effect of rasayanas in the inhibition of lung metastasis induced by B16F-10 melanoma cells.J Exp Clin Cancer Ros 1997;16(4):365-8.
Porianayagam JB, Sharma SK, Joseph A, Christina AJ. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95(1:)83-5.
Alam Ml. Gomes. A Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts. J Elhnopharmacol 2003; 86(1):75-80.
Panda S, Kar A. Fruit extract of Emblica officinalis ameliorates hyperthyroidism and hepatic lipid peroxidalion in mice. Pharmaaie 2003;58(10):753-5.
Jayaweera, D.M.A. Medicinal Plants used in Ceylon. National Science Council of Sri Lanka. Colombo 1980, Part 2.
Tsarong and Tsewang J. Tibetan Medicinal Plants. 1st ed. Tibetan Medical publications India, 1994.
Sanchoti G, Jindal A, Kumari R, Goyal PK. Chemoprevenlive action of emblica officinalis on skin carcinogenesis in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prov 2005; 6(2): 197-201.
Chaudhuri, Ratan K. Guttierez, Gilles and Serrar, Mustafa. LowMolecular-Weight Tannins of Phyllanthus emblica: A New Class of Anti-Aging Ingredients. Proceedings Active Ingredients Conference, Paris.2003.
Rajak S, Banerjee SK, Sood S, Dinda AK , Gupta YK, Gupta SK, et al. Emblica officinalis causes myocardial adaptation and protects against oxidative stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats. Phytother Res 2004; 18(1):54-60.
Kumar A, Singh A and Dora J. Essential perspectives for Emblica offcinalis. Int. J. Pharma. Chem. Sci. 2012; 1(1): 11-18.
Nisha P, Singhal RS, Pandit AB. A study on degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in amla during cooking. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2004;55(5):415-22.
Burkill, I. H. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. 1, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lump 1966.
Al-Rehaily AJ, Al-Howiriny TA, Al-Sohaibani MO, Rafatullah S. Gastroprotective effects of Amla Emblica officinalis on in vivo lest models in rats. Phytomedicine 2002;9(6):515-22.
Pushpendra Kumar Jain, Ak Singhai, and Debajyoti Das. Alternative herbal drugs used for treating hair disease. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016; 9(1):75-7.
Pushpendra Kumar Jain, Debajyoti Das, Puneet Jain and Prachi Jain. Pharmacognostic And Pharmacological Aspect Of Bacopa Monnieri: A Review. Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences 2016; 4(3):7-11.
Jain PK, Dass DJ. Evaluating hair growth potential of some traditional herbs. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015; 8(6):150-2.
Jain, Pushpendra Kumar. Ethanopharmacological Study of Cyperus Rotundus-A Herb Used By Tribal Community as a Traditional Medicine for Treating Various Diseases. Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences (2016); 4(2):4-6.
Santosh kumar J, Manjunath S and Sakhare PM. A study of anti-hyperlipedemia, hypolipedemic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis (amla) in high fat fed Albino rats Int. J. Med. Res. Health Sci 2013; 2(1):70-77.
Modilal MRD and Pitchai D. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) fruits in alloxan-induced diabetic rats J. Biotech and Biotherapeutics 2011;1(5): 34-39.
Jose JK, Kuttan R. Hepaloprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Criyavanaprash. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72(2):135-40.
Estari M, Venkanna L, Sripriya D and Lalitha R . Human Immunode-ficiency Virus (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity of Phyllanthus emblica plant extract. Biol. Med 2012;4 (4): 178â€“82.
Junoja LR. Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) on hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr Set Vitaminot 2005;51(6):413-8.
Achfiya GS, Wadodkar SG, Avinash KD Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 2004;42(5) 499-503.
P K Jain, Himanshu Joshi. Recent Developments on Anti-Convulsants. International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences 2012; 1(3):105-11.
Ganju L, Karan S, Chanda KK, Srivastava RC, Sawhney RC, Selvamurthy W. Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin. Biomed Pharmacother 2003; 57(7):296-300.
Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Sheela DR. Immunomodulatory activity of triphala on neutrophil functions. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28(8):1398-403.
Sai RM, Neetu D, Yogesh B, Anju B, Dipti P, Pauline T, et al. Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study. J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81(1):5-10.
Chaieb I. Saponins as insecticides: a review. Tunisian J. Plant Prot 2010; 5(1): 39-50.
Sharma N, Trikha P, Athar M. Raisuddin S. Inhibitory effect of Emblica officinalis on tire in vivo dastogenidty of benzojajpyrene and cyclophosphamide in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 2000;19(6):377-84.
Sunil Kumar, Pushpendra Kumar Jain, Nalini pandey, Gyanendra Saxena. Comparative study of proniosomal drug delivery system of flurbiprofen. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 2016; 8(5):222-28.
Perianayagam JB, Narayanan S, Gnanasekar G, Pandurangan A, Raja S, et al. Evaluation of antidiarrheal potential of Emblica officinalis. Pharma Biol. 2005; 43:373-7.
Pushpendra Kumar Jain and Debajyoti Das. Pharmacognostic Comparison of Bacopa Monnieri, Cyperus Rotundus & Emblica Officinalis. Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences 2016; 4(4):16-26.
Jeyasankar A, Premalatha and Elumalai K. Larvicidal activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts against im-portant human vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific J. Trop. Dis 2012;1(2): 399-403.
Deepika Devnani, Lubhan Singh, Pushpendra Kumar Jain, Amit Kr. Lala. In-Vivo Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Study of Prazosin HCL. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 2016; 8(6):497-597.
Vasudevan M, Parle M. Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) an Ayurvedic preparation. Physiol Bohav 2007;16(l):46-54.
Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. Nitric oxide radical scavenging active components from Phyllanthus emblica L. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2006;61(1):1-5.
Biswas NR, Gupta SK, Das GK, Kumar N, Mongre PK, Haldar D, Beri S. Evaluation of ophthacare eye drops-a herbal formulation in the management of various ophthalmic disorders. Phytother Res. 2001; 15(7): 618-20.
Bhattachary SK, Bhattacharya D, Muruganandam AV. Effect of Emblica officinalis tannoids on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38(9):945-7.
Singh I, Sharma A, Jindal A, Soyal D and Goyal PK. Protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against gamma irradiation in mice. Pharmacologyonline 2006;2: 128-150.
Treadway, Linda: Amla Traditional food and medicine. Herbal Gram. 1994;31-26.
Chaudhuri, Ratan K.: Standardised extract of Phyllanthus emblica: A skin lightener with anti-aging benefits. Proceedings PCIA Conference, Guangzhou, China, 9-11 March 2004.
Gopalan C, Sastri BVR, Balasubramaniam SC. Nutritive value of Indian foods. NIN, Hyderabad, India, 1991.
Brun V, Schumacher T. Traditional Herbal Medicine in Northern Thailand. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1987; 349.
Onions, Alan: Siddha Medicinal Herbs as Cosmetics Ingredients. SPC, March 1994.