EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA): A PROSPECTIVE REVIEW ON DISTINCTIVE PROPERTIES AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF AMLA
Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) usually referred as Amla is well-known tree used for the production of herbal as well as pharmacological medicines. It is a famous truth so as to every components of Amla are beneficial for the treatment of numerous illnesses. Among all, the maximum vital element is fruit. Amla fruit is extensively utilized in all around the world gadget of medication as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, metabolic syndrome, cardioprotective, hair energizer, stomach ulcer protective, and sickness, as by myself or in aggregate with different herbs. The different researches show that it contains large number of biochemical components, especially alkaloids, phenols, tannins, multivitamin, and inorganic compounds. The organic chemical constituents present in Amla involve ellagic acid, gallic acid, emblicanin A and B, phyllembein, quercetin, and ascorbic acid are decided to be efficient for health. The review articles related to Amla well known its palliative, anti-coughing, anti-atherogenic, immune booster, aerobic, intestinal protective, kidney protective, and neuroprotective, chemopreventive, radio modulatory, and anticancer homes. It is also stated to possess amazing unfastened radical scavenging, oxidation inhibitor, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and immune modulatory sports that are effectual inside the remedy and treatment of diverse illnesses such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, liver, and coronary heart illnesses. In this text, we communicate the nutritional fee, biochemical components, and conventional makes use of medicinal cost of Amla and its use as a household treatment. We, moreover, emphasized the mechanisms entails in pharmacological sports based on the modern-day research critiques and attempted to summarize the results of studies carried out from the beyond 5 years with proper specifications on the destiny possibilities in a pharmacological perspective.
2. Cragg GM, Boyd MR, Khanna R, Kneller R, Mays TD, Mazan KD, et al. International collaboration in drug discovery and development: The NCI experience. Pure Appl Chem 1999;71:1619-33.
3. Sharma R, Thakur GS, Sanodiya BS, Savita A, Pandey M, Sharma A, et al. Therapeutic potential of Calotropis procera: A giant milkweed. ISOR J Pharm Biol Sci 2012;4:42-57.
4. Zhang LZ, Zhao WH, Guo YJ, Tu GZ, Lin S, Xin L. Studies on chemical constituents in fruits of Tibetan medicine Phyllanthus emblica. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2003;28:940-3.
5. Dasaroju S, Gottumukkala KM. Current trends in the research of Emblica officinalis (Amla): Apharmacological perspective. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2014;24:150-9.
6. Dinesh M, Roopan SM, Selvaraj CI. Photocatalytic degradation of nitrophenol using biologically active Phyllanthus emblica seed extract. J Photochem Photobiol B 2016;161:273-8.
7. Perianayagam JB, Sharma S, Joseph A, Christina A. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:83-5.
8. Nosal’ova G, Mokrý J, Hassan KT. Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae). Phytomedicine 2003;10:583-9.
9. Jeevangi S, Manjunath S, Sakhare PM. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in high fat fed albino rats. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2013;1:70-7.
10. Muruganandam A, Kumar V, Bhattacharya S. Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on chronic stress-induced homeostatic perturbations in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2002;40:1151-60.
11. Baliga M, Prabhu A, Prabhu D, Shivashankara A, Abraham A, Palatty P. Antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and its phytochemicals: Preclinical observations. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;5:583-600.
12. Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Bandyopadhyay SK. Biphasic effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. Extract on NSAID-induced ulcer: An antioxidative trail weaved with immunomodulatory effect. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:146808.
13. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Tanaka T, Sugino H, Okubo T, et al. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) attenuates age-related renal dysfunction by oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:7744-52.
14. Reddy VD, Padmavathi P, Kavitha G, Gopi S, Varadacharyulu N.Emblica officinalis ameliorates alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. J Med Food 2011;14: 62-8.
15. Madhuri S, Pandey G, Khanna A. Oestrogen induced uterine damage in rats. Toxicol Int 2009;16:5-7.
16. Adil MD, Kaiser P, Satti NK, Zargar AM, Vishwakarma RA, Tasduq SA. Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;132:109-14.
17. Chularojmontri L, Suwatronnakorn M, Wattanapitayakul SK. Phyllanthus emblica L. Enhances human umbilical vein endothelial wound healing and sprouting. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:720728
18. Sandhya T, Mishra K. Cytotoxic response of breast cancer cell lines, MCF 7 and T 47 D to triphala and its modification by antioxidants. Cancer Lett 2006;238: 304-13.
19. Singh I, Sharma A, Jindal A, Soyal D, Goyal P. Fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) protects radiation induced biochemical lesions in the brain of Swiss albino mice. Ann Neurosci 2010;13:65-71.
20. Ram MS, Neetu D, Yogesh B, Anju B, Dipti P, Pauline T, et al. Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: An in vitro study. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:5-10.
21. Jain R, Pandey R, Mahant R, Rathore D. A review on medicinal importance of Emblica officinalis. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015;6:72.
22. El-Desouky S, Ryu SY, Kim YK. A new cytotoxic acylated apigenin glucoside from Phyllanthus emblica L. Nat Prod Res 2008;22:91-5.
23. Rehman H, Yasin KA, Choudhary MA, Khaliq N, Rahman A, Choudhary MI, et al. Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica. Nat Prod Res 2007;21:775-81.
24. Rajak S, Banerjee S, Sood S, Dinda A, Gupta Y, Gupta S, et al. Emblica officinalis causes myocardial adaptation and protects against oxidative stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats. Phytother Res 2004;18:54-60.
25. Mirunalini S, Krishnaveni M. Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (Amla): The ayurvedic wonder. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2010;21:93-105.
26. Variya BC, Bakrania AK, Patel SS. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms. Pharmacol Res 2016;111:180-200.
27. Ak T, Gülçin ?. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chem Biol Interact 2008;174:27-37.
28. Poltanov EA, Shikov AN, Dorman HD, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP, et al. Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements. Phytother Res 2009;23:1309-15.
29. Shivananjappa MM, Joshi MK. Influence of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract on growth and antioxidant defense system of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Pharm Biol 2012;50:497-505.
30. Girish C, Pradhan SC. Indian herbal medicines in the treatment of liver diseases: Problems and promises. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2012;26:180-9.
31. Ghosh N, Ghosh R, Mandal V, Mandal SC. Recent advances in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Pharm Biol 2011;49:970-88.
32. Golechha M, Bhatia J, Ojha S, Arya DS. Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis protects against kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rats: Evidence for an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective intervention. Pharm Biol 2011;49:1128-36.
33. Dwivedi S, Aggarwal A. Indigenous drugs in ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:1215-21.
34. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process. Br J Nutr 2007;97:1187-95.
35. Kim HY, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Yokozawa T. The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model. Br J Nutr 2010;103:502-12.
36. Patel SS, Goyal RK. Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit. Exp Clin Cardiol 2011;16:87-91.
37. Zhao L, Zhang SL, Tao JY, Pang R, Jin F, Guo YJ, et al. Preliminary exploration on anti-inflammatory mechanism of corilagin (beta-1- O-galloyl-3, 6-(R)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose) in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol 2008;8:1059-64.
38. Srinivasan K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: Spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2005;56:399-414.
39. Kumar S, Gupta P, Sharma S, Kumar D. Areview on immunostimulatory plants. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2011;9:117-28.
40. Mahady GB, Huang Y, Doyle BJ, Locklear T. Natural products as antibacterial agents. In: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry. Vol. 35. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2008. p. 423-44.
41. Rahman S, Akbor M, Howlader A, Jabbar A. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of amlaki (Emblica officinalis). Pak J Biol Sci 2009;12:1152-5.
42. Vijayalakshmi S, Arunkumar V, Anju D, Gunasundari P, Moorthy P, Chandrasekharan A. Comparative antimicrobial activities of Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum. Anc Sci Life 2007;27:1-6.
43. Priego S, Feddi F, Ferrer P, Mena S, Benlloch M, Ortega A, et al. Natural polyphenols facilitate elimination of HT-29 colorectal cancer xenografts by chemoradiotherapy: A Bcl-2-and superoxide dismutase 2-dependent mechanism. Mol Cancer Ther 2008;7:3330-42.
44. Penolazzi L, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Khan MT, Zennaro M, Piva R, et al. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis. BMC Complement Altern Med 2008;8:59.
45. Romano M, Vitaglione P, Sellitto S, D’Argenio G. Nutraceuticals for protection and healing of gastrointestinal mucosa. Curr Med Chem 2012;19:109-17.
46. Mehmood MH, Siddiqi HS, Gilani AH. The antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities of Phyllanthus emblica are mediated through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca2+ channels. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;133:856-65.
47. Baumann L, Woolery-Lloyd H, Friedman A. Natural ingredients in cosmetic dermatology. J Drugs Dermatol 2009;8:S5-9.
48. Datta HS, Paramesh R. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2010;1:110-3.
49. Suryanarayana P, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB. Emblica officinalis and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Mol Vis 2007;13:1291-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.