GENERAL OVERVIEW OF PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF RHEUM PALMATUM (CHINESE RHUBARB)

  • AAMIR KHAN KHATTAK Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan,
  • SYEDA MONA HASSAN Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan,
  • SHAHZAD SHARIF MUGHAL Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan,

Abstract

Recent probe of medicinal plants incorporated in traditional systems for curing infection and sustaining holistic health, has exposed good sum of therapeutic efficiency against deleterious infections and chronic illnesses. Rheum palmatum (Chinese Rhubarb, family Polygonaceae) is a significant medicinal herb, which finds an extensive use in Unani (Traditional) system of medicine. It has been traditionally employed as antiseptic, liver stimulant, diuretic, diabetes, stomachic, purgative/cathartic, anticholesterolemic, antitumor, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, tonic, antidiabetic, and wound healer. The most vital components from Rheum palmatum are the phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and anthraquinone derivatives such as aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, rhein, emodin and its glucorhein, and glycoside. Rhubarb also contains tannins which include hydrolysable-tannins, containing glycosidic or ester bonds composed of glucose, gallic acid, and other monosaccharide’s and condensed tannins, resulting principally from the flavone derivatives leukocyanidin and catechin. In recent years, new components such asrevandchinone-1, revandchinone-2, revandchinone-3, revandchinone-4, sulfemodin8-O-b-Dglucoside, and 6-methyl-rhein and aloe-emodin have been reported from the same class. It also encompasses some macro and micro mineral elements such as Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Na, Cu, and Li. Anthraquinone derivatives demonstrate evidence of anti-microbial, antifungal, anti-proliferative, anti-Parkinson’s, immune enhancing, anticancer, antiulcer, antioxidant, and antiviral activities. This review article covers published study on therapeutic uses of different constituents from rhubarb.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Antimicrobial, Rhubarb, Anthraquinone, Therapeutic uses, Tannins, Anticancer, Antioxidant, Minerals

References

1. Rolta R, Kumar V, Sourirajan A, Upadhyay NK, Dev K. Bioassay guided fractionation of rhizome extract of Rheum emodi wall as bio-availability enhancer of antibiotics against bacterial and fungal pathogens. J Ethnopharmacol 2020;257:112867.
2. Tabin S, Gupta RC, Bansal G, Kamili AN. Comparative HPLC analysis of emodin, aloe emodin and rhein in Rheum emodi of wild and in vitro raised plants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2016;5:121.
3. Wang X, Feng L, Zhou T, Ruhsam M, Huang L, Hou X, et al. Genetic and chemical differentiation characterizes top-geoherb and non-top-geoherb areas in the TCM herb rhubarb. Sci Rep 2018;8:9424.
4. Narasimhulu G, Mohamed J. Medicinal phytochemical and pharmacological properties of kesum (Polygonum minus Linn.): A mini review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:682-8.
5. Rashid S, Kaloo ZA, Singh S, Bashir I. Medicinal importance of genus Rheum-a review. Int J Adv Res 2014;2:261-267.
6. Zhumashova G, Kukula-Koch W, Koch W, Baj T, Sayakova G, Shukirbekova A, et al. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies on a rare Rheum cordatum Losinsk. Species from Kazakhstan. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019;2019:5465463.
7. Tabin S, Gupta RC, Kamili AN, Bansal G. Phytochemical analysis of wild and in vitro raised plants of Rheum species using HPLC. Biochem Pharmacol Open Access 2016;5:1000215.
8. Sokó?-??towska A, Kucharska AZ, Biesiada A. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Rheum palmatum roots. Herba Pol 2009;55:200-5.
9. Nisa H, Kamili AN, Bandh SA, Amin SU, Lone BA, Parray JA. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of different extracts of Rumex dentatus L.-a locally used medicinal herb of Kashmir Himalaya. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2013;3:434-40.
10. Zargar BA, Masoodi MH, Ahmed B, Ganie SA. Phytoconstituents and therapeutic uses of Rheum emodi wall. Ex Meissn. Food Chem 2011;128:585-9.
11. Krenn L, Presser A, Pradhan R, Bahr B, Paper DH, Mayer KK, et al. Sulfemodin 8-O-?-d-glucoside, a new sulfated anthraquinone glycoside, and antioxidant phenolic compounds from Rheum emodi. J Natl Prod 2003;66:1107-9.
12. Srinivas G, Babykutty S, Sathiadevan PP, Srinivas P. Molecular mechanism of emodin action: Transition from laxative ingredient to an antitumor agent. Med Res Rev 2007;27:591-608.
13. Nadkarni KM. Dr. K.M. Nadkarni’s Indian Materia Medica: With Ayurvedic, Unani-Tibbi, Siddha, Allopathic, Homeopathic, Naturopathic and Home Remedies, Appendices and Indexes. Vol. 1. Maharashtra: Popular Prakashan; 1996.
14. Guo J, Xiao B, Zhang S, Liu D, Liao Y, Sun Q. Growth inhibitory effects of gastric cancer cells with an increase in S phase and alkaline phosphatase activity repression by aloe-emodin. Cancer Biol Ther 2007;6:85-8.
15. Miraj S. Therapeutic effects of Rheum palmatum L. (Dahuang): A systematic review. Der Pharma Chemica 2016;8:50-4.
16. Feng L, Ruhsam M, Wang YH, Li ZH, Wang XM. Using demographic model selection to untangle allopatric divergence and diversification mechanisms in the Rheum palmatum complex in the Eastern Asiatic region. Mol Ecol 2020;29:1791-805.
17. Daniyal M, Tahir IM, Akram M. Pharmacological effects of Rheum emodi: A multiple purpose plant in health and disease. Pak J Med Biol Sci 2019;2:68-73.
18. Akhtar M, Amin M, Ahmad M, Alamgeer. Hepatoprotective effect of Rheum emodi roots (Revand chini) and akseer-e-jigar against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Ethnobotanical Leafl 2009;13:310-5.
19. Singh R, Tiwari T, Chaturvedi P. Rheum emodi Wall ex. Meissn (Indian rhubarb): Highly endangered medicinal herb. J Med Plants Stud 2017;5:13-6.
20. Wang X, Yang R, Feng S, Hou X, Zhang Y, Li Y, et al. Genetic variation in Rheum palmatum and Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae), two medicinally and endemic species in China using ISSR markers. PLoS One 2012;7:e51667.
21. Malik MA, Bhat SA, Rehman MU. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Rheum emodi (Rhubarb) rhizomes. Pharma Innov 2018;7:17.
22. Azwanida N. A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Med Aromat Plants 2015;4:2167.
23. Rolta R, Sharma A, Kumar V, Sourirajan A. Methanolic extracts of the rhizome of R. emodi act as bioenhancer of antibiotics against Bacteria and Fungi and antioxidant potential. Med Plant Res 2018;8:0009.
24. Krenn L, Pradhan R, Presser A, Reznicek G, Kopp B. Anthrone C-glucosides from Rheum emodi. Chem Pharm Bull 2004;52:391-3.
25. Kemper KJ. Rhubarb root (Rheum officinale or R. palmatum). In: The Center for Holistic Pediatric Education and Research. 1999. p. 1-16.
26. Malik MA, Bhat SA, Fatima B, Ahmad SB. Rheum emodi as a valuable medicinal plant. Int J Gen Med Pharm 2016;5:35-44.
27. Hasan SR, Hossain M, Akter R, Jamila M, Mazumder EH, Rahman S. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of some Bangladeshi medicinal plants. J Med Plants Res 2009;3:875-9.
28. Sylvie DD, Pieme AC, Biapa PC, Beng VP. Comparison of in vitro antioxidant properties of extracts from three plants used for medical purpose in Cameroon: Acalypha racemosa, Garcinia lucida and Hymenocardia lyrata. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:S625-32.
29. Rajkumar V, Guha G, Kumar RA. Antioxidant and anti-cancer potentials of Rheum emodi rhizome extracts. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:697986.
30. He ZH, He MF, Ma SC, But PP. Anti-angiogenic effects of rhubarb and its anthraquinone derivatives. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;121:313-7.
31. Conner E, Fowler B. Mechanisms of metal-induced nephrotoxicity. In: Toxicology of the Kidney. 1993. p. 437-57.
32. Alam MA, Javed K, Jafri M. Effect of Rheum emodi (Revand Hindi) on renal functions in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96:121-5.
33. Lu C, Wang H, Lv W, Xu P. Antibacterial properties of anthraquinones extracted from rhubarb against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Sci 2011;77:375.
34. Malmir M, Serrano R, Silva O. Anthraquinones as potential antimicrobial agents-a review. In: Antimicrobial Research: Novel Bioknowledge and Educational Programs. Mexico: FORMATEX; 2017. p. 55-61.
35. Levey AS, National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39:S1-266.
36. Li L. End-stage renal disease in China. Kidney Int 1996;49:287-301.
37. Li X, Wang H. Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2005;12:276-81.
38. Olorunnipa TA, Igbokwe CC, Lawal TO, Adeniyi BA, Mahady GB. Anti-helicobacter pylori activity of Abelmoschus esculentus L. moench (okra): An in vitro study. Afr J Pure Appl Chem 2013;7:330-6.
39. Agarwal S, Singh SS, Verma S, Kumar S. Antifungal activity of anthraquinone derivatives from Rheum emodi. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:43-6.
40. Cai C, Chen Y, Zhong S, Ji B, Wang J, Bai X. Anti-inflammatory activity of N-butanol extract from Ipomoea stolonifera in vivo and in vitro. PLoS One 2014;9:e95931.
41. Zhou YX, Xia W, Yue W, Peng C, Rahman K, Zhang H. Rhein: A review of pharmacological activities. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015;2015:578107.
42. Abe I, Seki T, Noguchi H, Kashiwada Y. Galloyl esters from rhubarb are potent inhibitors of squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Planta Med 2000;66:753-6.
43. Radhika R, Krishnakumar I, Sudarsanam D. Antidiabetic activity of Rheum emodi in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2010;8:296-300.
44. Yang J, Li L. Effects of Rheum on renal hypertrophy and hyperfiltration of experimental diabetes in rat. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1993;13:286-8.
45. Yokozawa T, Fujioka K, Oura H, Nonaka G, Nishioka I. Effects of rhubarb tannins on uremic toxins. Nephron 1991;58:155-60.
46. Yokozawa T, Zheng PD, Oura H, Nishioka I. Urine composition in rats with adenine-induced renal failure during treatment with rhubarb extract. Chem Pharm Bull 1984;32:205-12.
47. Ho TY, Wu SL, Chen JC, Li CC, Hsiang CY. Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction. Antiviral Res 2007;74:92-101.
48. Vimala G, Shoba FG. A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants. Int J Microbiol 2014;2014:519590.
49. Yusuf MA, Singh BN, Sudheer S, Kharwar RN, Siddiqui S, Abdel- Azeem AM, et al. Chrysophanol: A natural anthraquinone with multifaceted biotherapeutic potential. Biomolecules 2019;9:68.
50. Kong L, Cheng CH, Tan R. Inhibition of MAO A and B by some plant-derived alkaloids, phenols and anthraquinones. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91:351-5.
Statistics
18 Views | 17 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
KHATTAK, A. K., HASSAN, S. M., & MUGHAL, S. S. (2020). GENERAL OVERVIEW OF PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF RHEUM PALMATUM (CHINESE RHUBARB). Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences, 8(6), 5-9. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijas.2020.v8i6.39192
Section
Review Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)