NERIUM OLEANDER LINN. IN VITRO ALPHA AMYLASE INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF STEM AND ROOT EXTRACTS
Objective: Extraction and evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of extracts from stem and roots of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) Linn.
Methods: Stem and roots of N. oleander were collected, dried and extracted by using well-established methods for alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and crude extracts in polar and non-polar solvents. Evaluation of their antidiabetic activity was done with salivary alpha-amylase and starch as a substrate using chromogenic DNSA (2,4-Di nitro Salicylic Acid) method and Starch-iodine method. All experiments were performed in 3 different sets each in triplicates. The data are expressed as meanÂ±SEM (standard error of the mean).
Results: The highest inhibition for stem was found in its free flavonoid extract at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml, with percent inhibition 48.35Â±1.36 % and an IC50 value of 1.774 g/ml while in case of root, highest inhibition was obtained at 1.5 mg/ml of pet ether extract, with % inhibition 52Â±0.40 % and IC50 value 1.583 g/ml and at 1.5 mg/ml of methanol extract, with % inhibition 42.12Â±1.12 % and an IC50 value 1.729 g/ml. 8 (5 of stem and 3 of root) out of 14 tested extracts have shown good inhibitory potential. Extracts of the stem were found to be more potent than root extracts.
Conclusion: Though stem extracts were found to be a more potent hypoglycemic agent than root extracts, however, extracts of both parts have good antidiabetic potential and both might be fruitful in managing the postprandial hyperglycemia.
2. Yassin MM, Ashour AA, Elyazji NR. Alterations in body weight, protein profile, non-protein nitrogen constituents and kidney structure in diabetic rats under glibenclamide treatment. J Islam Univ Gaza 2004;12:65-82.
3. Mazumdar BC, Mukhopadhyay PM. Principles and Practices of Herbal Garden. Daya Publishing House, Delhi; 2006. p. 1.
4. Zimet P, Alberti KGMM, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of diabetic rats. Nature 2001;414:782â€6.
5. Kadali VN, Sandeep BV. Anti-hyperglycemic plants used by the traditional healer of west Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Pharmacogn 2015;2:473-77.
6. Wadkar KA, Magdum CS, Patil SS, Naikwade NS. Antidiabetic potential and Indian medicinal plants. J Herbal Med Toxicol 2008;2:45-50.
7. Hsu YJ, Lee TH, Chang CL, Huang YT, Yang WC. Anti-hyperglycemic effects and mechanism of Bidens pilosa water extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;18:379â€“83.
8. Jouad H, Haloui M, Rhiouani H, El HJ, Eddouks M. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases in the North centre region of Morocco (Fez-Boulemane). J Ethnopharmacol 2001;77:175â€“82.
9. Bnouham M, Mekhfi H, Legssyer A, Ziyyat A. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in Morocco. Int J Diabetes Metab 2002;10:33â€“50.
10. Tahraoui A, El-Hilaly J, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:105â€“17.
11. Hussain AM, Abbasi MSA, Hussain N, Majid SA. A survey of important indigenous medicinal plants of district Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Int J Adv Res 2013;1:635â€“44.
12. Rachid A, Rabah D, Farid L, Zohra SF, Houcine B, Nacera B. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in the North Western and South Western Algeria. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:2041â€“50.
13. Dey P, Saha MR, Chowdhuri SR, Sen A, Sarkar MP, Haldar B, et al. Assessment of anti-diabetic activity of an ethnopharmacological plant Nerium oleander through alloxan induced diabetes in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;161:128â€“37.
14. Swathi K, Ravi Shankar K. Anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Biopharm Res 2014;3:212-5.
15. Mwafy SN, Yassin MM. Antidiabetic activity evaluation of glimepiride and Nerium oleander extract on insulin, glucose levels and some liver enzymes activities in an experimental diabetic rat model. Pak J Biol Sci 2011;14:984-90.
16. Sudha P, Zinjarde SS, Bhargava SY, Kumar AP. The potent Î±-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2011;11:5.
17. Sandhya S, Sai Kumar P, Vinod KR, David Banji, Kumar K. Plants as potent anti-diabetic and wound healing agents-a review. Hygeia: J Drugs Med 2011;3:11-9.
18. Ramawat KG, Merillon JM. Biotechnology: Secondary Metabolites. Science Pub Inc.; 2000.
19. Subramanian SS, Nagarjan S. Flavonoids of the seeds of Crotolaria retusa and Crotolaria striata. Curr Sci (India) 1969;38:65.
20. Tomita Y, Uomori A, Minato H. Steroidal sapogenins and sterols in tissue cultures of Dioscorea tokora. Phytochemistry 1970;9:111-4.
21. Xiao Z, Storms R, Tsang A. A quantitative starch-iodine method for measuring alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities. Anal Biochem 2006;351:146-8.
22. Miller GL. Use of dinitro salicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 1959;31:426-8.
23. Zimmet P, Cowie C, Ekoe JM, Shaw J. Classification of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. In: International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus; 2004.
24. World Health Organization. Prevention of diabetes mellitus: report of a WHO Study Group. Geneva; 1994.
25. Sandoval S. Pima Indian Diabetes susceptibility differs significantly from European susceptibility. Biochem 2009;118:1-8.
26. Arky RA. Clinical correlates of metabolic derangements of diabetes mellitus. Complications of diabetes mellitus. WB Saunders. Philadelphia; 1982. p. 16-20.
27. Moller DE. New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Nature 2001;414:821-7.
28. Nwaegerue E, Nweke IN, Ezeala CC, Unekwe PC. Glucose lowering effect of leaf extracts of Viscum album in normal and diabetic rats. J Res Med Sci 2007;12:235-40.
29. Singh S, Loke YK, Furberg CD. Thiazolidinediones and heart failure: a teleo-analysis. Diabetes Care 2007;30:2148-53.
30. Ahmed I, Adeghate E, Cummings E, Sharma AK, Singh J. Beneficial effects and mechanism of action of Momordica charantia juice in the treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rat. Mol Cell Biochem 2004;261:63-70.
31. Karunanayake EH, Tennekoon KH. Search of novel hypoglycemic agents from medicinal plants. In: Sharma AK. Diabetes mellitus and its complications. An update. Macmillan India Ltd, New Delhi, India; 1993.
32. Ribnicky DM, Kuhn P, Poulev A, Logendra S, Zuberi A, et al. Improved absorption and bioactivity of active compounds from an anti-diabetic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. Int J Pharm 2009;370:87-92.