• AINA JACOB KOLA School of Science, College of Education (Tech.) Lafiagi, Kwara State, Nigeria
  • ABDULRAHMAN ABDULGAFAR OPEYEMI School of Science, College of Education (Tech.) Lafiagi, Kwara State, Nigeria



Creativity skill, Employability skill, Entrepreneurial skill, Problem-solving, Science application, Science education, Unemployment


This reviewed paper focused on the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) and the problem of science graduates' employability as a bane for unemployment in Nigeria. The script discussed the challenges facing the NCE graduates and attributed it to the teacher education programme's issues. Some sources of these problems are inadequate curriculum, government policy, and others. The article conceptualized Application, Creativity, and Employability (ACE) to explain the unemployment challenge among the NCE science graduate in Nigeria. An ACE framework to solve this problem was formed and highlighted some benefits of the ACE for colleges of education programme. The article discussed some implications the ACE may have on the Nigerian colleges of education science.


Download data is not yet available.


• Aderemi, H.O., Hassan, O.M., Siyanbola, W.O., & Taiwo, K. (2013). Trends in enrolment, graduation and staffing of science and technology education in Nigeria tertiary institutions: A gender participation perspective. Educational Research and Reviews, 8(21), 2011-2020.
• Adetayo, J. O. (2016). Teachers' factors as determinants of the professional competence of the Nigeria certificate in education (NCE) teachers. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(13), 1-11.
• Aina, J. K. (2017). The physics authentic learning experience through the peer instruction. Saarbrucken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publisher.
• Aina, J. K., & Joseph, P. Y. (2017). Nigerian certificate in education (NCE): An exploration of physics students' achievement. Üniversitepark Bülten, 6(2), 56-65. 10.22521/unibulletin.2017.62.4
• Aina, J. K., & Azeez, A. A. (2018). The peer instruction’s effectiveness as teaching pedagogy: Research reviews. Cross-Currents: An International Peer-Reviewed Journal on Humanities & Social Sciences, 4(4), 63-68.
• Aina, J. K., Nathaniel, N. G., & Ayodele, M. O. (2019). The trajectories of science education in Nigeria and its challenge to sustainable development. Cross-Currents: An International Peer-Reviewed Journal on Humanities & Social Sciences, 5(3), 53-61.
• Aina, J. K., Abdulrahman, A. O., Ayodele, M. O. (2020). Assessment of scientific literacy skills of college of education students in Nigeria. American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 5(1), 207-220.
• Akindutire, I.O., & Ekundayo, H.T. (2012). Teacher education in a democratic Nigeria: Challenges and the way forward. Educational Research, 3(5), 429-435.
• Aldous, C. R. (2005). Creativity in problem solving: Uncovering the origin of new ideas. International Education Journal, ERC2004 Special Issue, 5(5), 43-56.
• Amini-Philips, C., & Ogbuagwu, C. (2017). Corruption and administration of higher education institutions in Nigeria. World Journal of Social Science, 4(2), 12-17. 10.5430/wjss.v4n2p12
• Ang, M. C. H. (2015). Graduate employability awareness: A gendered perspective. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211(2015), 192-198.
• Araba, S.O. (2012). Entrepreneurial education as a tool for reducing unemployment in Nigeria. (Master thesis, Babcock University, Nigeria) Retrieved from
• Asiyai, R. I. (2013). Challenges of quality in higher education in Nigeria in the 21st century. International Journal of Educational Planning & Administration, 3(2), 159-172.
• Asiyai, R. I. (2015). Improving quality higher education in Nigeria: The roles of stakeholders. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(1), 61-70.
• Asonitou, S. (2015). Employability skills in higher education and the case of Greece. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 175 (2015) 283 – 290.
• Audu, R., Kamin Y. B. & Saud, M. S. B. (2013). Acquisition of employability skills in technical vocational education: Necessity for the 21st-century workforce. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(6), 9-14.
• Babatunde, M. L., & Braimoh, D. S. (2018). The Nigerian teacher education industry: Gaps, challenges and prospects. International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, 3(1), 47-56.
• Bakar, A. R., & Mohamed, S., & Hanafi, I. (2007). Employability skills: Malaysian employers perspectives. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 2(1), 264-274.
• Bayyat, M., Orabi, S. M., & Altaieb, M. H. A. (2016). Life skills acquired in relation to teaching methods used through swimming context. Asian Social Science, 12(6), 223-231.
• Bernhard, J., Lindwall, O., Engkvist, J., & Zhu, X. (2007). Making physics visible and learnable through interactive lecture demonstrations. Physics Teaching in Engineering Education PTEE. Retrieved from
• Cheng, S., She, H., & Huang, L. (2018). The impact of problem-solving instruction on middle school students' physical science learning: Interplays of knowledge, reasoning, and problem solving. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(3), 731-743.
• Clement, I., & Mowette, M. (2017). The challenges of funding primary education in a depressed economy. International Journal of Education and Evaluation, 3(7), 65-70.
• Dogu, M. (2008). The Application of problem solving method on science teacher trainees on the solution of the environmental problems. Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 3(1), 9 – 18.
• Fortus, D., Krajcik, J., Dershimer, R. C., Marx, R. W., & Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2005). Design-based science and real-world problem-solving. International Journal of Science Education, 27(7), 855-879.
• Gambo, O. O., & Fasanmi, S. A. (2019). Funding university education in Nigeria: The challenges and way forward. Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy (BJSEO), 13(1), 80-91.
• Genc, M. (2015). The effect of scientific studies on students' scientific literacy and attitude. Journal of Ondokuz May?s University Faculty of Education, 34(1), 141-152.
• Gedye, S., & Chalklley, B. (2015). Employability within geography, earth and environmental sciences. GEES learning and teaching guide. The higher education academy. Retrieved from
• Harry, I.H. (2011). Attitudes of students towards science and science education in Nigeria. (A case study in selected secondary schools in Obio/Akpor local government area of rivers state). Continental Journal of Education Research, 4(2), 33-51.
• Hu, R., Xiaohui, S., & Shieh, C. (2017). A study on the Application of creative problem solving teaching to statistics teaching. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13(7), 3139-3149.
• Israel, C. H. (2018). The challenges of teacher education in the 21st century Nigeria. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 716-727.
• Mathew, I. A. (2013). Provision of secondary education in Nigeria: Challenges and way forward. Journal of African Studies and Development, 5(1), 1-9. 10.5897/JASD11.058
• National Commission for Colleges of education. (2012). Nigeria Certificate in Education Minimum Standards for General Education. Abuja, Nigeria: Author.
• Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. (2013). Federal Republic of Nigeria National Policy on Education (6th Ed.). Abuja, Nigeria: Author.
• Nikolopoulou, K. (2018). Creativity and ICT: Theoretical approaches and perspectives in school education. In T. A. Mikropoulos (Ed.), Research on e-Learning and ICT in Education (pp. 87-100). Switzerland: Springer.
• Nwaokugha, D. O., & Ezeugwu, M. C. (2017). Corruption in the education industry in Nigeria: Implications for national development. European Journal of Training and Development Studies, 4(1), 1-17
• Okeke, O. J. (2019). Quality assurance in teaching and learning in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. 92-99. Retrieved from
• Okoroma, N. S. (2006). Educational policies and problems of implementation in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 46(2), 242-263.
• Omole, C. O., & Ozoji, B. E. (2014). Science education and sustainable development in Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(8), 595-599.
• Omorogbe, E., & Ewansiha, J. (2013). The challenge of effective science teaching in Nigeria secondary schools. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(7), 181-188.
• Onuma, N. (2016). Entrepreneurship education in Nigerian tertiary institutions: A remedy to graduate unemployment. British Journal of Education, 4(5), 16-28.
• Oritsebemigho, T. O. (2014). An appraisal of the revised Nigeria certificate in education minimum standards (English language curriculum). European Scientific Journal, Special Edition, 10, 165-171.
• Osokoya, M.M., & Junaid, I.O. (2015). Enrolment and achievement of persons with special education needs in secondary schools in science subjects: Facts and patterns. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 7(2), 137-149.
• Pegg, A., Waldock, J., Hendy-Isaac, S., & Lawton, R. (2012). Pedagogy for employability. Retrieved from
• Plecher, H. (2020). Nigeria: Youth unemployment rate from 1919 to 2019. Retrieved from
• Prabhu, J. J. (2019). A study on entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial attitude in Malaysia-The relationship between employment and unemployment analysis. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 3(3), 840-842. 10.31142/ijtsrd23028
• Rabi, N. M., & Masran, M. N. B. (2016). Creativity characteristics in teaching students with learning disabilities among pre-service teacher in UPSI. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 3(11), 66-72.
• Rasul, M. S., Ismail, M. Y., Ismail, N., Rajuddin, M., & Rauf, R. A. A. (2009). Importance of employability skills as perceived by employers of Malaysian manufacturing industry. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 5(12), 2059-2066.
• Rule, A. (2006). Editorial: The components of authentic learning. Journal of Authentic Learning, 3(1), 1-10.
• Suarta, M., Suwintana, K., Sudhana, F. P., & Hariyanti, K. D. (2017). Employability skills required by the 21st-century workplace: A literature review of labour market demand. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 102(2017), 337-342.
• Ubogu R. E., & Veronica, M. O. (2018). Financing education in Nigeria: Implications and options for national development. World Journal of Educational Research, 5(3), 227-239.
• Udeorah, K.E., & Ogana, M. (2014). Influence of entrepreneurship development on unemployment reduction in Nigeria (2009-2013). International Journal of Youth Empowerment and Entrepreneurship Development, 1(1), 82-96.
• Udompong, L., & Wongwanich, S. (2014). Diagnosis of the scientific literacy characteristics of primary students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116(2014), 5091-5096.
• Wheeler, S, Waite, S. J., & Bromfield, C. (2002). Promoting creative thinking through the use of ICT. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 18(3), 367-378.
• Wilson, C., Lennox, P.P., Hughes, G., & Brown, M. (2017). How to develop creative capacity for the fourth industrial revolution: creativity and employability in higher education. In F. Reisman (Ed.), Creativity, Innovation and Wellbeing (vol. V, pp. 241-274). Philadelphia, USA: KIE Conference Publications.



How to Cite




Review Article(s)