• Faridah Kormin
  • Muhammad Khan Department of Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, 21300 Pakistan
  • Ade Chandra Iwansyah


Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate the, total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and functional group of epiphytes ferns grows on the Malaysian palm oil trunk (MPOTEF): that includes Nephrolepis biserrata (NBF), Davallia denticulata (DDF), Asplenium longissimum (ALF), Gonioplebium percussum (GPF), Stenochlaena palustris (SPF), Vittaria elongata (VLF) and Vittaria ensiformis (VSF).

Methods: For extraction, microwave oven assisted method was used. TPC was determined by following the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and TFC was determined using aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH-scavenging assay methods.

Results: All the ferns exhibited good results of TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity. SPF showed highest TPC and TFC in aqueous extracts; 639.4 mg/g and 172.71 mg/g respectively, and the same result showed in ethanol extracts; 271.61 mg/g and 174.54 mg/g, respectively. SPF also giving scavenged the free radicals 94.85% in aqueous extract while 98.17% in ethanol extract. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity revealed DDF having the strongest result (130µg/ml (dry mass) in ethanol extract as compared to in water extract and other species. The FTIR indicated the presence of alcohols, phenols, amine, alkanes, alkenes, alkyl halides, carbonyl, nitro compounds, acid, ether and ester in different species and extracts. Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS) program for SPF extract showed the most probable activities are antioxidant, lipid peroxidase inhibitor and radical scavengers.

Conclusion: All the ferns showed active toxicity in ethanol extract whereas inactive in the water extracts except SPF. Amongst them, SPF shows its capability as a natural antioxidant source appears to be an alternative to synthetic antioxidants. It can be seen from the results of PASS for SPF extract that most probable activities are antioxidant, lipid peroxidase inhibitor and radical scavengers supported by cytotoxicity and FTIR results. Thus, the present approach can be very useful in fern prediction activity according to their required properties.

Keywords: Epiphytes fern, Palm oil, Total phenolic compound, Total flavonoid compound, Antioxidant activity, Brine shrimp lethality test, FTIR



Download data is not yet available.


Mandal V, Mohan Y, Hemalatha S. Microwave assisted extraction—an innovative and promising extraction tool for medicinal plant research. Pharmacogn Rev 2007;1:7-18.

Hurtado-Fernández E, Gómez-Romero M, Carrasco-Pancorbo A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. Application and potential of capillary electroporation methods to determine antioxidant phenolic compounds from plant food material. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010;5:1130-60.

Alothman M, Bhat R, Karim A. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food Chem 2009; 115:785-8.

Ong ES. Extraction methods and chemical standardization of botanicals and herbal preparations. J Chromatogr B: Biomed Sci Appl 2004;812:23-33.

Lai Y, Lim Y. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of selected ferns in Malaysia. Int J Environ Sci Dev 2011;2:442-7.

Camel V. Recent extraction techniques for solid matrices—supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized fluid extraction and microwave-assisted extraction: their potential and pitfalls. Analyst 2001;126:1182-93.

Pan X, Niu G, Liu H. Microwave-assisted extraction of tea polyphenols and tea caffeine from green tea leaves. Chem Eng Process 2003;42:129-33.

Sparr Eskilsson C, Björklund E. Analytical-scale microwave-assisted extraction. J Chromatogr A 2000;902:227-50.

Montanher ABP, Pizolatti M, Brighente IMC. An application of the brine shrimp bioassay for general screening of brazilian medicinal ferns. Acta Farm Bonaer 2002;21:175-8.

Rastogi S, Pandey MM, Rawat AKS. An ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. and Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;136:283-96.

Marimuthu M, Gurumoorthi P. Phytochemical screening and FTIR studies on wild and common south Indian legumes. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:141-4.

Ashokkumar R, Ramaswamy M. Phytochemical screening by FTIR spectroscopic analysis of leaf extracts of selected Indian medicinal plants. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2014;3:395-6.

Surewicz WK, Mantsch HH, Chapman D. Determination of protein secondary structure by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a critical assessment. Biochemistry 1993;32:389-93.

McCann MC, Hammouri M, Wilson R, Belton P, Robert K. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy a new way to look at plant cell walls. Plant Physiol 1992,100:1940-7.

Stehfest K, Toepel J, Wilhelm C. The application of micro-FTIR spectroscopy to analyze nutrient stress-related changes in biomass composition of phytoplankton algae. Plant Physiol Biochem 2005;43:717-26.

Muruganatham S, Anbalagan G, Ramamurthy N. FTIR and SEM-eds comparative analysis of medicinal plants. Eclipta alba HASSK and Eclipta Prostrata linn. Rom J Biophys 2009;19:285-94.

Liu HX, S Dun SQ, Lv GH, Chan KK. Study on angelica and its different extracts by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta Part A 2006;64:321-6.

Park YS, Jung ST, Kang SG, Heo BK, Arancibia-Avila P, Toledo F, Drzewiecki J, et al. Antioxidants and proteins in ethylene-treated kiwifruits. Food Chem 2008;107:640–8.

Chang C, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:178-82.

Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J Univ Chem Technol Metall 2005;40:255-60.

Kormin F, Ahmed I, Yunus RM, Yusof ZAM. The potential of modified microwave extraction system (MMES) to extract bioactive components from ferns. Int J Eng Technol 2010;10:7-21.

Braca A, Tommasi ND, Bari LD, Pizza C, Politi M, Morelli. Principles from bauhinia terapotensis. J Nat Prod 2001;6:892-5.

Meyer B, Ferrigni N, Putnam J, Jacobsen L, Nichols Dj, McLaughlin J. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active fern constituents. Ferna Med 2007;45:31-4.

Li JZ Z, Gerendas J. Effects of nitrogen and sulfur on total phenolics and antioxidant activity in two genotypes of leaf mustard. J Fern Nutr 2008;31:1642-55.

Hasan SM, Akter S, Imam MZ, Raquibul Hossain MM, Mazumder ME H, Rana MS. Antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic properties of aerial parts of trichosanthes dioica Roxb. Am J Food Nutr 2011;1:95-1.

Azhari HN, Muhammad Khan, Ahmad ZS, Tahira B, Abdurahman HN, Muhammad MK, et al. In-vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activity of selected malaysian plants. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:93-7.

Maryam Z, Farrukh A, Iqbal A. The in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of four Indian medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2009;1:88-95.

Yazdanparast R, Ardestani A. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of cyperus rotundus. J Med Food 2007;10:667-74.

Ghafar M, Prasad KN, Weng KK, Ismail A. Flavonoid, hesperidin, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of citrus species. Afr J Biotechnol 2010;9;3.

Khan M, Norasyidah H, Azhari HN, Rehman A, Salah AAE. In vitro antioxidant evaluation of extracts of three wild malaysian plants. Procedia Eng 2013;5:29-36.

Ehala S, Vaher M, Kaljurand M. Characterization of phenolic profiles of Northern European berries by capillary electrophoresis and determination of their antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:6484-90.

Kähkönen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, et al. Antioxidant activity of fern extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3954-62.

Shahidi F, Naczk M. ed. Method of analysis and quantification of a phenolic compound, in food phenolics: sources, chemistry, effects, and applications. Lanchester, PA. USA: Technomic Publishing Company; 1995.

Akowuah G, Sadikun A, Mariam A. Flavonoid identification and hypoglycemic studies of the butanol fraction from Gynura procumbens. Pharm Biol 2002;40:405-10.

Rohman AS, Riyanto N, Yuniarti WR, Saputra R. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid of extracts and fractions of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.). Int Food Res 2010;17:97-6.

Imeh U, Khokhar S. Distribution of conjugated and free phenols in fruits: antioxidant activity and cultivar variations. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:6301-6.

Ghimire BK, Seong ES, Kim EH, Ghimeray AK, Yu CY, Ghimire BK, et al. A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant activity of some medicinal ferns popularly used in Nepal. J Med Ferns Res 2011;5:1884-91.

Tabart J, Kevers C, Pincemail J, Defraigne JO, Dommes J. Antioxidant capacity of black current varies with organ, season, and cultivar. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:6271-6.

Tan PW, Tan CP, Ho CW. Antioxidant properties: effects of solid-to-solvent ratio on antioxidant compounds and capacities of Pegaga (Centella asiatica). Int Food Res J 2011;18:557-62.

Garofulić IE, Dragović-Uzelac V, Jambrak AR, Jukić M. The effect of microwave assisted extraction on the isolation of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from sour cherry marasca (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). J Food Eng 2013;117:437-42.

Wan C, Yu Y, Zhou S, Liu W, Tian S, Cao S. Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricate leaf extracts at different temperatures. Pharmacogn Mag 2011;7:40-5.

Zhang ZS, Li D, Wang LJ, Ozkan N, Chen XD, Mao ZH, et al. Optimization of ethanol–water extraction of lignans from flaxseed. Sep Purif Technol 2007;57:17-24.

Sutivisedsak N, Cheng H, Willett J, Lesch W, Tangsrud R, Biswas A. Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolics from the bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.). Food Res Int 2010;43:516-9.

Shyam KM, Dhanalakshmi P, Yamini SG, Sudhalakshmi G, Gopalakrishnan S, Manimaran A, et al. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Indian medicinal plant hydnocarpus pentandra. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:453-8.

Parasuraman S. Prediction of activity spectra for substances. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2011;2:52.

Oryema C, Ziraba RB, Odyek O, Omagor N, Opio A. Phytochemical properties and toxicity to brine shrimp of medicinal ferns in Erute county, Lira district, Uganda. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:5450-7.

Rosa A, Deidda D, Serra A, Deiana M, Dessì MA, Pompei R. Omega-3 fatty acid composition and biological activity of three microalgae species. J Food Agric Environ 2005;3:120-4.

Wardlaw AC. Practical statistics for experimental biologists: Wiley Chichester; 1985.

Manilal A, Sujith S, Kiran GS, Selvin J, Shakir C. Cytotoxic potentials of a red alga, Laurencia brandenii collected from the Indian coast. Global J Pharmacol 2009;3:90-4.

Kladi M, Xenaki H, Vagias C, Papazafiri P, Roussis V. New cytotoxic sesquiterpenes from the red algae Laurencia obtusa and Laurencia microcladia. Tetrahedron 2006;62:182-9.

Kalaiselvi M, Gomathi D, Vidya B, Uma C. Evaluation of antioxidant potential and Fourier transform spectroscopy analysis of Ananus comosus (L.) Merr peel. Int Res J Pharm 2012;3:237-42.

Sukumaran S, Kiruba S, Mahesh M, Nisha SR, Miller PZ, Ben CP, et al. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial efficacy of the flowers of peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) baker ex heyne. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;49:735–8.

Egwaikhide PA, Okeniyi SO, Gimba CE. Screening for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituent of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Adv Biol Res 2007;15:155-8.



How to Cite

Kormin, F., M. Khan, and A. C. Iwansyah. “MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION; PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF MALAYSIAN PALM OIL TRUNK EPIPHYTES FERNS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 4, Apr. 2016, pp. 174-80, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/10162.



Original Article(s)