• Ade Chandra Iwansyah Center for Appropriate Technology Development, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Subang 41213, West Java, Indonesia
  • Rizal M. Damanik Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Lilik Kustiyah Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Hanafi Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, PUSPIPTEK, Indonesia


Objective: The objectives of this research were to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity; phenolics and flavonoids contents; and chemical composition of some galactopoietic herbs used in Indonesia and to find a possible relationship between antioxidant activity; phenolics, flavonoids and chemical composition of these plants.

Methods: A wide range of analytical parameters was studied, including yield; pH; water activity (aw); total color difference; phenolics and flavonoids content; moisture; ash; protein; fat; carbohydrate; fiber; calcium; zinc; magnesium; potassium; iron content; and the data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate the correlation between the parameters and classification of the plants. Folin–cioceltaeu assay, aluminum chloride assay and DPPH scavenging assay were used to evaluate of total phenolics content and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract of galactopoietic herbs.

Results: All of the galactagogue herbs, viz. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) (PA), Sauropus androgynus (SA), Moringa oleifera (MO), and Carica papaya leaves (CP) exhibited good results of TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity. MO contained the highest average of total phenolics content (53.89 mg GAE/g). SA with a ratio of total flavonoids to total phenolics (TF/TP) which is 1.59 contained the highest average of total flavonoids and antioxidant activity (IC50), 43.63 mg QE/g and 126.13 μg/ml, respectively, followed by MO>CA>PA. Based on PLS and PCA analysis, antioxidant activity correlated with fat, protein, phenolics content, flavonoids content and pH, but only the total flavonoids content correlated strongly with antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: This provides useful data about the studied relationships and chemical patterns in some galactopoietic herbs used and provides a helpful tool for understanding much more about the interpretation of results from the experiments and the mechanism of biosynthesis in plants.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, galactopoietic herbs, physicochemical composition, partial least square (PLS) regression, principal component analysis (PCA).


Download data is not yet available.


1. Sawa T, Nakao M, Akake T, Ono K, Maeda H. Alkylperoxyl radical-scavenging activity of various flavonoids and other phenolic compounds: implications for the anti-tumor-promoter effect of vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:397-402.
2. World Health Organization. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding: The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breast Feeding. 54th World Health Assembly. Document A54/INF. DOC./4. World Health Organization: Geneva; 2001.
3. Mannion C, Mansell D. Breastfeeding self-efficacy and the use of prescription medication: a pilot study. Obstet Gynecol Int 2012;2:562-704.
4. Walker M. Breastfeeding management for the clinician: Using the Evidence. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2012.
5. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM Clinical Protocol #9:Use of galactagogues in initiating or augmenting the rate of maternal milk secretion (first revision, January 2011). Breastfeed Med 2011;6:41-9.
6. Kim-Godwin YS. Postpartum beliefs and practices among non-Western cultures. Am J Matern Child Nurs 2003;28:74–8.
7. Ari H, Arumingtyas EL, Indriyani S, Hakim L. Local knowledge of katuk (Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr) in East Java, Indonesia. Int J Curr Pharm Rev Res 2016;7:210-5.
8. Damanik R, Wahlqvist ML, Wattanapenpaiboon N. Lactagogue effects of torbangun, a bataknese traditional cuisine. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15:267-70.
9. Herawati L, Yuniati E. Ethnobotanical study of herbs of lauje ethnic communities in Tomini District, Parigi Mouton Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biocelebes 2014;8:26-30.
10. Mutiara K, Harijono, Estiasih T, Endang SW. Effect lactagogue moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera Lam) powder in rats white female wistar. J Basic Appl Sci Res 2013;3:430-4.
11. Mortel M, Mehta SD. A systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. J Human Lactation 2013;29:154-62.
12. Doloksaribu TH, Syarief H, Damanik MRM, Marliyati SA. The development of torbangun flour-based functional supplementary food for breastfeeding mother. Int J Sci: Basic Appl Res 2015;1:348-55.
13. Madrano GB, Perez ML. The efficacy of malunggay (Moringa oleifera) given to near term pregnant women in including early postpartum breast milk production–a double-blind randomized clinical trial; 2015.
14. Sa’roni T, Sadjiman T, Sja’bani M, Zulaela. Effectiveness of the Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. leaf extract in increasing mother’s milk productions. Media Litbang Kesehatan 2004;16:20-4.
15. Andarwulan N, Batari R, Sandrasari DA, Bolling B, Wijaya H. Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia. Food Chem 2010;121:1231-5.
16. Maisuthisakul P, Pasuk S, Ritthiruangdej P. Relationship between antioxidant properties and chemical composition of some Thai plants. J Food Composition Anal 2008;21:229-40.
17. Damanik MRM. Torbangun: a bataknese traditional cuisine for the lactating mother in the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia. Handbook of dietary and nutritional aspects of human breast milk, Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2013. p. 1013-21.
18. Khare RS, Banerjee S, Kundu K. Coleus aromaticus benth–a nutritive medicinal plant of potential therapeutic value. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2011;2:488-500.
19. Lukhoba CW, Simmonds MSJ, Paton AJ. Plectranthus: a review of ethanobotanical uses. J Ethanopharmcol 2006;103:1-24.
20. Kumaran, Kuranakaran RJ. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food Chem 2006;97:109-14.
21. Petrus AJA. Review: Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merrill-a potentially nutritive functional leafy-vegetable. Asian J Chem 2013;25:9425-33.
22. Selvi SV, Baskar A. Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant activity of Sauropus androgynus plant extracts using GC-MS analysis. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2012;12:65-7.
23. Sánchez-Machado DI, Núñez-Gastélum JA, Reyes-Moreno C, Ramirez-Wong B, Lopez-Cervantes J. Nutritional quality of edible parts of Moringa oleifera. Food Anal Methods 2010;3:175-80.
24. Amaglo NK, Bennet RN, Lo Curto RB, Rosa EAS, Turco VL, Giuffrida A, et al. Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera L., grown in Ghana. Food Chem 2010;122:1047-54.
25. Canini A, Alesiani D, D’Arcangelo G, Tagliatesta P. Gas chromatography-mass spectometry analysis of phenolic compounds from Carica papaya L. leaf. J Food Composition Anal 2007;20:584-90.
26. Bingna C, Hua C, Han S, Huili S, Peng W, Deke C, et al. the Lactogenic activity of an enzymatic hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD rats Thai plants. J Med Food 2015;18:1262­9.
27. El-Mesallamy AMD, Hussein SAM, El-Azim MHMA, El-Gerby M. Phenolic composition and biological activities of methanolic extract of Carica papaya. Nat Prod: Indian J 2014;10:91-8.
28. Association of official analytical chemists. official methods of analysis. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC, USA; 1990.
29. Waterman FG, Mole S. Analysis of phenolic plant metabolites. Wiley; 1994. p. 83–8.
30. Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M. Total phenolic and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J University Chem Technol Metallurgy 2005;40:255-60.
31. Moyo B, Julius MP, Hugo A, Voster M. Nutritional characterization of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:12925-33.
32. Sharma DK, Tiwari B, Kr Singh B, Sahu S, Mathur SC, Singh RM, et al. Estimation of minerals in Carica papaya L. leaf found in Northern India by using ICP-OES technique. Int J Sci Eng Res 2013;4:1012-9.
33. Iqbal S, Younas U, Sirajuddin, Chan KW, Sarfraz RA, Uddin MK. Proximate composition and antioxidant potential of leaves from three varieties of mulberry (Morus sp.): a comparative study. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:6651-64.
34. Maisuthisakul P. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant properties of some thai plants, phytochemicals-a global perspective of their role in nutrition and health. ed. Venketeshwer Rao; 2012.
35. Maisarah AM, Asmah R, Fauziah O. Proximate analysis, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different parts of Carica papaya. J Tissue Sci Eng 2014;5:133-7.
36. Jamal JA. Malay traditional medicine, an overview of scientific and technological progress. Technical Monitor 2006;23:37-49.
37. Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. Standardized method for determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in food and dietary supplement. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:4290-302.
38. Kormin F, Khan M, Iwansyah AC. Microwave assisted extraction; phytochemical evaluation of Malaysian palm oil trunk epiphytes ferns. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:1-7.
39. Sreelatha S, Padma PR. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. J Plant Foods Human Nutr 2009;64:303–11.
40. Srivastava MP, Tiwari R, Sharma T. Assessment of phenol and flavonoid content in the plant materials. J New Biol Reports 2013;2:163-6.
41. Saxena V, Chagti KK. The effect of climate on total phenolics in Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna unguiculata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha piperita using spectrophotometer. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;5:59-61.
42. Iwansyah AC, Mashitah MY. Physicochemical, minerals and antioxidant properties of Labisia pumila var. alata of selected geographic origins. J Agric Sci 2012;34:94-104.
43. Dai J, Mumper RJ. Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules 2010;15: 7313-52.
44. Mehta V, Sharma A, Kalikhura P, Malairaman U. Antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, and antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum santum: an in vitro and in silico study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;5:44-9.
45. Sharififar F, Nudeh-Dehghn G, Mirtajaldini M. Major flavonoids with antioxidant activity from Teucrium polium L. Food Chem 2008;112:885-8.
46. Hair F, Anderson J, Tatham I, Black C. Multivariate data analysis. 5th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2005.
478 Views | 1303 Downloads
How to Cite
Iwansyah, A. C., R. M. Damanik, L. Kustiyah, and M. Hanafi. “RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF SOME GALACTOPOIETICS HERBS USED IN INDONESIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 12, Dec. 2016, pp. 236-43, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i12.14964.
Original Article(s)