ULTRAFILTRATED FRACTION OF KOREAN RED GINSENG EXTRACT IMPROVES MEMORY IMPAIRMENT OF TG2576 MICE VIA INHIBITION OF SOLUBLE AÎ’ PRODUCTION AND ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY
Keywords:Ginseng, Nil, Acetylcholinesterase, Ultrafiltration, Memory
Objective: The goal of this study was to research for an effective fraction on memory improvement of Korean red ginseng.
Methods: In this study, 80 % ethanol red ginseng extract (RE) was divided into inner fluid (REUI) and outer fluid (REUO) by the ultrafiltration and then REUO was further separated into four fractions namely, REUO-00, REUO-30, REUO-50 and REUO-70, respectively, by Diaion HP-20 column chromatography.
Results: REUO has protected more significantly the H2O2-induced SHSY-5Y cell death than REUI. Interestingly, the hydrophobic parts of the REUO (REUO-EtOHs) such as REUO-30,-50 and-70 decreased more significantly the H2O2-induced cell death than its hydrophilic part (REUO-00) in a dose-dependent manner. Then, we focused on the activity of a candidate for cholinergic functions, because memory deficits of neurodegenerative diseases are closely associated with cholinergic dysfunctions. The REUO-EtOHs (1.25 mg/ml) inhibited the activity of the acetylcholinesterase and its half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was about 2.358 mg/ml. Additionally, we investigated whether the intake of the REUO (50 mg/kg/d) during 12 w could improve memory impairment of 12-month old Tg2576 mice and decrease total soluble amyloid-Î² (AÎ²) proteins in the mouse brain cortex. The REUO alleviated significantly the memory impairment and successfully reduced the levels of the soluble AÎ² proteins in the mouse cortex.
Conclusion: We finally suggest that the REUO, including majorly its hydrophobic part that may be considered as more effective for memory improvement, will be highly considered as valuable candidate for the memory-enhancing ingredients against cholinergic dysfunctions and cognitive impairments of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease.Keywords: Ginseng, Alzheimer's disease, Acetylcholinesterase, Ultrafiltration, Memory
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