EVALUATION OF THE SUSPENDING PROPERTIES OF SHEA TREE GUM
Keywords:SUSPENSION, SHEA GUM, ACACIA GUM
Objective: Shea gum is found in large quantities in the northern part of Ghana. Its use in the pharmaceutical industry has been limited by lack of research into the possible uses of the gum as a pharmaceutical excipient. This study seeks to investigate the use of shea gum as a suspending agent using paracetamol as a model drug.
Methods: The crude shea gum was collected, purified and used as a suspending agent to formulate paracetamol suspensions using gum concentrations of 1 %w/v, 2 %w/v, 3 % w/v and 4 % w/v. These suspensions with varying gum concentrations were compared with paracetamol suspensions containing same concentrations of acacia gum. The suspensions were all tested for their apparent viscosity, flow time, sedimentation volume over 42 d and ease of re-dispersibility.
Results: The apparent viscosities of both suspensions increased when the gum concentrations were increased. The flow times of the freshly prepared shea gum suspensions increased gradually with increasing concentration of gum. A similar trend was observed for suspensions made with acacia gum. For suspensions made with either gum, the volume of sediments was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the gum. However, the volume of sediments increased with time. The ease of re-dispersibility was directly proportional to the concentration of gum in suspensions containing either gum.
Conclusion: Shea gum was found to have suspending properties comparable to acacia gum. Shea gum can, therefore, be used in formulating oral suspensions of drugs.
Keywords: Suspension, Shea gum, Acacia gum
Girish KJ, Dhiren PS, Vipul DP. Gums and mucilages; versatile excipients for pharmaceutical formulations. Asian J Pharm Sci 2009;4:1, 3, 308-23.
Wang Q, Cui SW. Understanding the physical properties of food polysaccharides. In: Cui SW. editor. Food Carbohydrates; Chemistry, Physical Properties, and Applications. Boca Raton, Florida, USA, CRC Press: Taylor and Francis Group; 2005. p. 161-262.
Tekade BW, Chaudhari YA. Gums and mucilages: Excipients for modified drug delivery system. J Adv Pharm Educ Res 2013;3:359-67.
Al-Assaf S, Phillips GO. Hydrocolloids: structure-function relationships. A review on the factors influencing the functionality of acacia gum and other hydrocolloids of interest to the food industry. J Inst Food Sci Technol 2009;23:17-20.
Whistler RL. Introduction to industrial gums. In: BeMiller JN, Whistler RL. editors. Industrial Gums, Polysaccharides, and Their Derivatives. 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press; 1993. p. 8-10.
Mantell CL. The Water Soluble Gums. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp; 1947. p. 80-90.
Kipo SL, Oppong EE, Ofori-Kwakye K. Physicochemical evaluation and tablet formulation properties of shea tree gum. Asian J Pharm Sci 2014;7:121-7.
Bhardwaj TR, Kanwar M, Lal R, Gupta A. Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2000;26:1025-38.
Jani GK, Shah DP, Prajapati VD, Jain VC. Gums and muscilages: versatile excipients for pharmaceutical formulations. Asian J Pharm Sci 2009;4:308-22.
Wallace-Bruce S, Appleton H. Shea butter extraction in Ghana. In: Appleton H. editor. Do it Herself: Women and Technical Innovation. London: Intermediate Technology Publications; 1995. p. 157-61.
Hall JB, Aebischer DP, Tomlinson HF, Osei-Amaning E, Hindle JR. Vitellaria paradoxa: A Monograph, No. 8. Bangor, UK: School of agricultural and forest sciences publication, University of Wales; 1996. p. 105.
Diarrassouba N, Fofana IJ, Issali AE, Bup Nde D, Sangare A. Typology of shea trees (Vitellaria paradoxa) using qualitative morphological traits in cote dâ€™Ivoire. Gene Conserve 2009;8:752-80.
British Pharmacopoeia Commission. British Pharmacopoeia. London, UK: Her Majestyâ€™s Stationery Office; 2009.
Mahmud HS, Oyi AR, Allagh TS, Gwarzo MS. Evaluation of the suspending property of Khaya snegalensis gum in co-trimoxazole suspensions. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 2010;2:50-5.
Aulton ME. Pharmaceutics-the science of dosage form design. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2002. p. 665-9, 208-10.
Mestres FM, Gilberte M. Pharmaceutical emulsions and suspension. Marcel Derker Inc; 2000. p. 73-120.
Asantewa Y, Ofori Kwakye K, Kipo SL, Etsiapa-Boamah V, Johnson R. Investigation of the emulsifying and suspending potential of cashew tree gum in pharmaceutical formulations. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011:3;215-9.
Conway BR, Nep E. I Characterization of grewia gum, a potential pharmaceutical excipient. J Excipients Food Chem 2010;1:30â€40.