PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND IMMUNO-MODULATORY EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA FLOWERS
Objective: This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activities of different solvent extracts of Moringa oleifera flowers using carrageenan-induced mice paw edema.
Methods: Soxhlet extraction method was employed in this study to extract the crude phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis testing of Moringa oleifera extracts was performed to identify the presence of various phytoconstituents based on the standard procedures. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute inflammatory model carrageenan-induced paw edema. Three different flower extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) of Moringa oleifera at the dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activity on the different extracts of Moringa oleifera was determined through the Î±-carrageenan induced left hind paw oedema method in albino mice. 0.05 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan suspension was reconstituted with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) to give a homogenous solution which then be injected into the subplantar tissue of the left hind paw of each mice to induce acute inflammation.
Results: Treatment with three different solvent extracts showed significant (p<0.05) inhibition in carrageenan-induced paw edema. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts were found to be less effective than methanolic extracts when compared to (Indomethacin) reference standard at the dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. The phytochemical results obtained indicates that anti-edematous action of Moringa oleifera flowers exhibited in this study is due to the presence of potent anti-inflammatory phytoconstituents (flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin) in impeding arachidonic acid metabolism and production of reactive free radicals. A significant (p<0.05) increase of left hind paw thickness after the drug injection was noticed in the negative control mice group as time persisted. It showed the highest paw thickness at the fifth hour with 4.72 mmÂ±0.07. Whereas the indomethacin treated group showed the highest percent oedema inhibition amongst all experimental group with 38.60% at the fifth-hour post-carrageenan induction. It exhibited a significant inhibition of 29.02% against the oedema after the third hour of carrageenan injection.
Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera flowers extract has anti-inflammatory activity. This activity was related to the dose and these results collaborate the potential traditional use of the plant in folk medicine.
2. Lim TK, Edible plant and non-medicinal plants: fruits, New York, USA, Springer Science Business Media 2012;2:453-80.
3. Marcu MG. Miracle tree, Toronto, Canada, KOS Health Publishing 2005.
4. Chukwuebuka E. Moringa oleifera â€œThe Motherâ€™s Best Friendâ€. Int J Nutr Food Sci 2015;4:624-30.
5. Navie S, Csurhes S. Weed risk assessment: Moringa oleifera. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Biosecurity Queensland, State of Queensland; 2016.
6. Sachan A, Meena AK, Kaur R, Pal B, Singh B. Moringa oleifera: a review. J Pharm Res 2010;3:840-2.
7. Fuglie LJ. The miracle tree: the multiple attributes of mooring, Dakar, Senegal, Church World Service; 2001. p. 172.
8. Babu NP, Pandikumar P, Ignacimuthu S. Anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia lebbeck Benth. An ethnomedicinal plant, in acute and chronic animal models of inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;125:356-60.
9. Mueller T. Neuroinflammation in Huntington's disease. J Neural Transm 2010;117:1001â€“8.
10. Acarin L, Peluffo H, Gonzalez B, Castellano B. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 after excitotoxic damage to the immature rat brain. J Neurosci Res 2010;68:745-54.
11. Khandelwal KA. Practical Pharmacognosy: Techniques and Experiments, Pune, India, Nirali Prekashan; 2008.
12. Hafeez A, Jain U, Sajwan P, Srivastava S, Thakur A. Evaluation of carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of the bark of Ficus virens Linn. in swiss albino mice. J Phytopharmacol 2013;2:39-43.
13. Rakesh S, Singh VJ. Anti-inflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera leaf and pod extracts against carrageenan induced paw edema in albino mice. J Pharm Sci Innovation 2011;1:22-4.
14. Brown AP, Dinger N, Levine BS. Stress produced by gavage administration in the rat. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2000;39:17-21.
15. Brett JW, Stephen KP, Shixin D, Afa KP. Antimicrobial activity of an iridoid rich extract from Morinda citrifolia fruit. Curr Res J Biol Sci 2012;4:52-4.
16. Fawole OA, Ndhlala AR, Amoo SO, Finnie JF, Van-Staden J. Anti-inflammatory and phytochemical properties of twelve medicinal plants used for treating gastrointestinal ailments in South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;123:237â€“43.
17. Woan ST, Palanisamy A, Govindarajan K, Sharida F. Moringa oleifera flower extract suppresses the activation of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages via NF-ðœ…B pathway. Mediators of Inflammation 2015:1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/720171
18. Julia PC, Yanping X, Hong C, Min-Hsiung P, Chi-Tang H, Rodolfo J, et al. Determination of flavonoids by LC/MS and anti-inflammatory activity in Moringa oleifera. J Functional Foods 2013;5:1892-9.