PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDISATION OF CAYRATIA PEDATA (LAM.) GAGNEP. VAR. GLABRA GAMBLE–AN ENDEMIC AND ENDANGERED MEDICINAL CLIMBER IN THIASHOLA, NILGIRIS


Sharmila S., Kalaichelvi K., Dhivya S. M.

Abstract


Objective: The main objective  was to develope  a detailed pharmacognostic profile of aerial plant parts of Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabra Gamble (Vitaceae) an endemic and endangered medicinal taxon distributed in Thiashola, Manjoor, Nilgiris South Division, Western Ghats.

Methods: All pharmacognostical and phytochemical  evaluation of Cayratia pedata var. glabra was carried out by different  evaluation methods  like macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, minerals, vitamins, heavy metal analysis, phytochemical studies and GC/MS analysis.

Results: The macroscopical investigation revealed that the stem is hirsute and grows upto a height of 12 m. The leaves are alternate, oblong and acuminate with smooth surface and texture (3 to 6 cm). Tendril, leaf opposed, branched, wiry and coiled. Flowers yellow and fruits bilobed. The anatomical study in tendril and old stem provides a set of characters specific for C. pedata var. glabra with which one can establish the identity of the plant in fragmentary form.The availability of macro and micro elements were studied in plant powder (ash). The macro elements, calcium (34.50 mg/100 g) and potassium (11.45 mg/100 g) were present in high amount likewise in microelements manganese (4.56 mg/100 g) was significantly higher. The fat soluble vitamin A - retinol (156.8 iu) was present in higher amount when compared to other vitamins. Results of heavy metal analysis revealed that the concentration of Lead was less than 1 ppm and chromium occurred in traces. The other heavy metals like mercury, cadmium and arsenic were totally absent.The percent yield was maximum in methanol extract (11%) followed by water extract (10%).The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols and tannins, steroids and sterols, triterpenoids and volatile oil. GC–MS analysis showed the presence of 15 compounds such as Heptadecane (17.36%), Silane, trichlorooctadecyl (17.29%), Eicosane (15.44%), Heptane, 2,2,3,3,5,6,6-heptamethyl (14.71%), n-Tetradecyltrichlorosilane (13.64%), Pentadecane (10.55%), Iron, tricarbonyl [N-(phenyl-2-pyridinylmethylene) benzenamine - N, N’] (10.91%) and Octadecane (8.93%) were the other major compounds present.

Conclusion: The above parameters, which are being testimony for the first time, are momentous towards establishing the pharmacognostic profile for future identification and authentication of genuine plant material. This approach is important for this time since this species is listed in Red data book as per the IUCN red list categories and criteria due to their lower germination percentage and also due to its enriched medicinal value.


Keywords


Cayratia pedata var. glabra, Thiashola, pharmacognosy, physicochemical

| PDF | HTML |

References


Ambasta SP. The useful plants of India. New Delhi; 1986. p. 112.

Singh MP, Himadri Panda. Medicinal herbs with their formulations; 1994. p. 230.

Chakraborty MK, Bhattacharjee A. Some common ethnomedicinal uses for various diseases in Purulia district, West Bengal. Indian J Tradi Knowledge 2006;5:554-8.

Jain SK, Rao RR. Hand Book of Field and Herbarium Methods. New Delhi; 1970.

Fyson PF. The Flora of the Nilgiri and Pulney hilltops. Superintendent, Government Press: Madras; 1915. p. 20-3.

Gamble JS, Fischer. CEC, Flora of the Presidency of Madras, Calcutta; 1967. p. 1-3.

Matthew KM. The Flora of the Tamil Nadu Carnatic. Rapinet Herbarium St Joseph’s College Tiruchirapalli 1983;3:278-9.

Johansen DA. Plant Microtechnique. Mc Graw Hill Book Co, Newyork; 1940. p. 523.

Wallis TE. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 5thed. New Delhi, India; 1985.

Sass JE. Elements of Botanical Microtechnique. McGraw Hill Book Co. Newyork; 1940. p. 222.

O’Brien TP, Feder N, Mc Cull ME. Polychromatic staining of plant cell walls by toluidine blue-O. Protoplasma 1964;59:364-73.

Esau K. Plant anatomy. John Wiley and sons, Newyork; 1964. p. 767.

Tandon HLS. Methods of analysis of soils, plants, water and fertilizers. Fertilizers Development and Consultation Organization. New Delhi, India; 1993. p. 144.

Lawrence Evans. DSN Dietary Supplements, Non-Botanicals. Pharmacopeial Forum 2009;28:1545.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 16th ed. AOAC International, Suite 400, 2200 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA, USA; 1995.

WHO. Quality control methods for medicinal plant material. Geneva: WHO; 1992. p. 22-34.

Kokate CK, Khandelwal KR, Pawar AP, Gohalz SB. Practical Pharmacognosy, Vallabh Prakashan. 4th ed. New Delhi, India; 1995. p. 107.

Massada Y. Analysis of essential oil by gas chromatography and spectrometry, Wiley Pub., New York, London; 1976. p. 69-71.

Robert Hook. Micrographic or some physiological description of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses observations inquiries thereupon; 2003. p. 1605-703.

Uthayakumari F, Sumathy M. Pharmacognostical studies on the endemic medicinal plant–Jatropha maheswarii Subr and Nayar (Euphorbiaceae). Int J Pharm Tech Res 2011;3;2169-74.

Wheeler EA, LaPasha CA. Woods of the Vitaceae-fossil and modern. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 2003;80:175-207.

Pragasam A. Pharmacognostic studies on Cissus vitiginea L. International conference on medicinal plants and herbal drugs: Challenges and opportunities in cultivation, sustainable utilization and conservation (ICMPHD); 2010. p. 153-4.

Enechi OC, Odonwode I. An assessment of the phytochemical and nutrient composition of the pulverized root of Cissus quadrangularis Bio. Res Gate 2003;1:63-8.

Chaudhari MR, Gokhale SB. Biochemistry and clinical pathology. Nirali Prakashan; 1991. p. 72-7.

Deb AC. Concepts of Biochemistry. 2nded. Book and Allied (P) Ltd., Calcutta; 2004. p. 300-24.

Singhal MK. Banana potassium and stroke. J Experi Biol News Scan 2002;40:1322.

Dandiya PC, Sharma PK. Biochemistry and clinical pathology (Theory and Practical). Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi; 1996. p. 90-104.

Ayoka AO, Akomolafe RO, Akinsomisoye OS, Ukponmwan OE. Medicinal and Economic value of Spondias mombin. Afr J Biomed Res 2008;11:129-7.

Fumio Watanabe. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability. Minireview, The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, School of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Sciences, Tottori University, Japan; 2007. p. 1266-74.

Mertz W. Chromium in Nutrition and Metabolism. Elesvier; 1989. p. 1-14.

Muhammad Athar Abbasi, Ali Raza, Tauheeda Riaz, Tayyaba Shahzadi, Aziz-ur-Rehman. Investigation on the volatile constituents of Juglans regia and their in vitro antioxidant potential. Proc Pakistan Acad Sci 2010;47:137-4.

Vasantharaj S, Senthilkumar P, Sathiyavimal S, Hemashenpagam N, Vijayaram S. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts, source. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;5(6 Suppl):84.




About this article

Title

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDISATION OF CAYRATIA PEDATA (LAM.) GAGNEP. VAR. GLABRA GAMBLE–AN ENDEMIC AND ENDANGERED MEDICINAL CLIMBER IN THIASHOLA, NILGIRIS

Keywords

Cayratia pedata var. glabra, Thiashola, pharmacognosy, physicochemical

DOI

10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i12.17352

Date

01-12-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 9, Issue 12, 2017 Page: 57-63

Online ISSN

0975-1491

Statistics

26 Views | 9 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Sharmila S.
PG and Research Department of Botany, Vellalar College for Women (Autonomous), Thindal, Erode 638012, Tamil Nadu, India
India

Kalaichelvi K.
PG and Research Department of Botany, Vellalar College for Women (Autonomous), Thindal, Erode 638012, Tamil Nadu, India

Dhivya S. M.
PG and Research Department of Botany, Vellalar College for Women (Autonomous), Thindal, Erode 638012, Tamil Nadu, India
India


Article Tools



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.