PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDISATION OF CAYRATIA PEDATA (LAM.) GAGNEP. VAR. GLABRA GAMBLEâ€“AN ENDEMIC AND ENDANGERED MEDICINAL CLIMBER IN THIASHOLA, NILGIRIS
Objective: The main objective Â was to developeÂ a detailed pharmacognostic profile of aerial plant parts of Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabra Gamble (Vitaceae) an endemic and endangered medicinal taxon distributed in Thiashola, Manjoor, Nilgiris South Division, Western Ghats.
Methods: All pharmacognostical and phytochemical Â evaluation of Cayratia pedata var. glabra was carried out by different Â evaluation methodsÂ like macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, minerals, vitamins, heavy metal analysis, phytochemical studies and GC/MS analysis.
Results: The macroscopical investigation revealed that the stem is hirsute and grows upto a height of 12 m. The leaves are alternate, oblong and acuminate with smooth surface and texture (3 to 6 cm). Tendril, leaf opposed, branched, wiry and coiled. Flowers yellow and fruits bilobed. The anatomical study in tendril and old stem provides a set of characters specific for C. pedata var. glabra with which one can establish the identity of the plant in fragmentary form.The availability of macro and micro elements were studied in plant powder (ash). The macro elements, calcium (34.50 mg/100 g) and potassium (11.45 mg/100 g) were present in high amount likewise in microelements manganese (4.56 mg/100 g) was significantly higher. The fat soluble vitamin A - retinol (156.8 iu) was present in higher amount when compared to other vitamins. Results of heavy metal analysis revealed that the concentration of Lead was less than 1 ppm and chromium occurred in traces. The other heavy metals like mercury, cadmium and arsenic were totally absent.The percent yield was maximum in methanol extract (11%) followed by water extract (10%).The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols and tannins, steroids and sterols, triterpenoids and volatile oil. GCâ€“MS analysis showed the presence of 15 compounds such as Heptadecane (17.36%), Silane, trichlorooctadecyl (17.29%), Eicosane (15.44%), Heptane, 2,2,3,3,5,6,6-heptamethyl (14.71%), n-Tetradecyltrichlorosilane (13.64%), Pentadecane (10.55%), Iron, tricarbonyl [N-(phenyl-2-pyridinylmethylene) benzenamine - N, Nâ€™] (10.91%) and Octadecane (8.93%) were the other major compounds present.
Conclusion: The above parameters, which are being testimony for the first time, are momentous towards establishing the pharmacognostic profile for future identification and authentication of genuine plant material. This approach is important for this time since this species is listed in Red data book as per the IUCN red list categories and criteria due to their lower germination percentage and also due to its enriched medicinal value.
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