SCREENING OF TOTAL PHENOL AND FLAVONOID CONTENT IN DIFFERENT CYTOTYPES OF TWO SPECIES OF ACHYRANTHES LINN. FROM WESTERN HIMALAYA, INDIA
Objective: Genus Achyranthes Linn. belonging to family Amaranthaceae consists of six species. The present study was undertaken to screen the phenolic components in the different cytotypes of two species of Genus Achyranthes Linn. growing in western Himalaya, India.
Methods: Methanol extract of leaves was used to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents in different cytotypes of A. aspera Linn. and A. bidentata Blume by spectrophotometric method. Total phenol content was expressed as mg gallic acid g-1phenol and total flavonoid content as mg quercetin g-1flavonoid using the standard curves. Further, gallic acid content in methanol extracts of leaves was determined by RP-HPLC method using C-18 column, employing 0.01% (v/v) orthophosphoric acid: acetonitrile (98:2 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 272 nm.
Results: Hexaploid plants of A. aspera Linn. possess the higher amount of phenol (9.16Â±0.84 mg/g) and flavonoid (78.36Â±1.63 mg/g) constituents in the methanol extract of leaves as compared to its dodecaploid counterparts (7.86Â±0.08 mg/g and 70.20Â±1.81 mg/g respectively). Similarly, phenol and flavonoid content is found to be more in the methanol extract of leaves of hexaploid plants of A. bidentata Blume (11.93Â±0.59 mg/g and 115.92Â±1.32 mg/g respectively) as compared to its dodecaploid counterparts (9.46Â±0.75 mg/g and 107.76Â±0.94 mg/g respectively). Further, RP-HPLC analysis of gallic acid revealed that higher amount of gallic acid is present in dodecaploid plants of A. aspera Linn. (1.04Â±0.02 mg/g) and A. bidentata Blume (1.34Â±0.03 mg/g) as compared to hexaploid counterparts (1.01Â±0.01 mg/g and 1.22Â±0.05 mg/g respectively).
Conclusion: The present investigation revealed that A. aspera Linn. and A. bidentata Blume plants show immense intraspecific variability in their phenolic components. Hence there is need to evaluate germplasm to select superior genotype for medicinal and conservation purpose.
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