PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND IN VITRO STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES USING CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA BARK EXTRACTS
Objective: Casuarina equisetifolia is an important multipurpose exotic forest tree species widely cultivated in the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu that serves as a warehouse of essential secondary metabolites. Identification of these bioactive compounds in this forest tree species might lead to the discovery and development of a new drug to treat various diseases.
Methods: The present study was carried out with an objective to analyse the phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed to evaluate the presence of various volatile compounds. An in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous and organic solvents of C. equisetifolia bark was studied.
Results: The preliminary qualitative screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, and tannins. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of maximum phenols (71.2Â±0.51 mg/g), flavonoids (35.12Â±0.34 mg/g), tannins (77.59Â±0.21) and terpenoids (6%) in methanolic root extract with respective standards. Several peaks were obtained in the GC-MS analysis which indicates the presence of different secondary metabolites. Antibacterial activity showed a maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (23Â±0.24 mm) and Proteus vulgaris (23Â±0.32 mm). The antioxidant potential of various extracts was compared with the standard ascorbic acid. Anti-inflammatory activity was compared with standard diclofenac sodium and the extract showed activities significantly in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusion: From this study, it is revealed that C. equisetifolia bark extract possesses efficient antibacterial property, the potential in scavenging free radical, effective antioxidant, powerful anti-inflammatory source that can be employed in the development of a novel drug to treat various diseases.
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