STARZ-DRP: A STRUCTURED FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TO COUNSEL SELF-CARE CUSTOMERS
Keywords:STARZ-DRP, Self-care counselling, Community pharmacist, Triage decision, Self-confidence
Objective: Aim of this study is to take a look at the community pharmacists' (CPs) self-rating confidence of advocating self-care customers using before and after attending a STARZ-DRP training workshop.
Methods: CPs (n=231) in the state of Penang had been invited via e-mail to engage in a STARZ-DRP training workshop. CPs had been trained to assess individual features and analyse the facts and figures before formulating a triage action plan. A self-administered questionnaire to evaluate CPs' self-confidence to performing self-care counselling had been handed out before and after the workshop.
Results: Twenty CPs (8.7%) had responded to the invitation via e-mail. It was noted that CPs' self-rating confidence to performing self-care counselling making use of STARZ-DRP as a framework were improved in all domains reflected in the questionnaire. Among significant improvements (p<0.05) noted were making triage decision, consistently assessing individual features, and identifying actual or potential origins of the medical problem.
Conclusion: CPs' self-confidence to performing self-care counselling making use of STARZ-DRP as a framework to advocate self-care customers is enhanced after turning up at the training workshop. It reflects the future use of STARZ-DRP as a potential framework to help out CPs to formulate a triage action plan for self-care customers.
Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P, Blenkinsopp J. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common Illness. 5th. Eds. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK; 2005. p. 1-13.
Edwards C, Stillman P. Minor illness or major disease? The clinical pharmacist in the community. 4th Eds. Pharmaceutical Press; London: 2006. p. 1-10.
Rutter P. Community pharmacy. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. Churchill Livingstone, An Imprint of Elsevier Limited; 2004. p. IXâ€“XI.
Rutter PM, Horsley E, Brown DT. Evaluation of community pharmacists' recommendations to standardized patient scenarios. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:1080â€“5.
McCallian DJ, Cheigh NH. The pharmacist's role in self-care. J Am Pharm Assoc 2002;42:S40â€“1.
Shauna MB, Kirby J, Conrad WF. A structured approach for teaching students to counsel self-care. Patients Am J Pharm Educ 2007;71:1-7.
Sarriff A, Nordin N, Hassali MA. STARZ-DRP: a step-by-step approach for pharmacy triage services. Mal J Pharm 2011;1:311-25.
Cipolle RJ, Strand LM, Morley PC. Pharmaceutical care practice: the clinicianâ€™s guide. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2004.
Keegan J. The Face of Battle. New York: Viking Press; 1976. p. 267-9.
Curley LE, Moody J, Gobarani R, Aspden T, Jensen M, McDonald M, et al. Is there potential for the future provision of triage services in community pharmacy? J Pharm Policy Prac 2016;9:29.
Zukiewicz-Sobczak WA, Wroblewska P, Adamczuk P, Zwolinski J, Oniszczuk A, Wojtyla-Buciora P, et al. Drugs as important factors causing allergies. Postep Derm Alergol 2015;XXXII:388â€“92.
Wang PS, Bohn RL, Knight E, Glynn RJ, Mogun H, Avorn J. Noncompliance with antihypertensive medications. the impact of depressive symptoms and psychosocial factors. J Gen Intern Med 2002;17:504-11.
Wallace JL. How do NSAIDs cause ulcer disease? Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2000;14:147-59.
Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Alper CM, Janicki-Deverts D, Turner RB. Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:62â€“7.
Guirguis LM, Lee S, Sanghera R. Impact of an interactive workshop on community pharmacistsâ€™ beliefs toward patient care. Int J Clin Pharm 2012;34:460-7.
Rayes IK, Abduelkarem AR. A qualitative study exploring physiciansâ€™ perceptions on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai. Pharm Pract 2016;14:738.
Hoti K, Hughes J, Sunderland B. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacistsâ€“an Australian perspective. Aust Med J 2011;4:236-42.
Wong FYY, Chan FWK, You JHS, Wong ELY, Yeoh EK. Patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management in hong kong: a focus group study from different healthcare professionalsâ€™ perspectives. BMC Health Serv Res 2011;11:121.
Salim AM, Elgizoli B. Exploring self-perception of community pharmacists of their professional identity, capabilities and role expansion. J Res Pharm Pract 2016;5:116-20.
Warchal S, Brown D, Tomlin M, Portlock J. Attitudes of successful candidates of supplementary prescribing courses to their training and their extended roles. Pharm J 2006;276:348-52.
Malangu N. The future of community pharmacy practice in South Africa in the light of the proposed new qualification for pharmacists: implications and challenges. Global J Health Sci 2014;6:226-33.
You JH, Wong FY, Chan FW, Wong EL, Yeoh E. Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong. BMC Clin Pharmacol 2011;11:19.
Berbatis CG, Sunderland VB, Joyce A, Bulsara M, Mills C. Enhanced pharmacy services, barriers and facilitators in Australia's community pharmacies: Australia's National Pharmacy Database Project. Int J Pharm Pract 2007;15:185-91.
Sadek MM, Elnour AA, Al Kalbani NMS, Bhagavathula AS, Baraka MA, Aziz AMA, et al. Community pharmacy and the extended community pharmacist practice roles: the UAE experiences. Saudi Pharm J 2016;24:563-70.
Fang Y, Yang S, Zhou S, Jiang M, Liu J. Community pharmacy practice in China: past, present and future. Int J Clin Pharm 2013;35:520-8.
Laliberte MC, Perreault S, Damestoy N, Lalonde L. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada. BMC Public Health 2012;12:192.
Sushilkumar PL, Mahendrakumar BJ, Baishnab S, Gloria Sam K, Chaitanya Kumar T. Implementation and evaluation of health screening services to diabetic and hypertensive patients in a selected community pharmacy at Belgaum City. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:305-15.
Malik M, Kanwal N, Hussain A. Role of community pharmacist and nutritionists in obesity management: a literature review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:40-2.