• Jhons Fatriyadi Suwandi Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia
  • Mahardika Agus Wijayanti Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Mustofa . Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities and to evaluate the selectivity indices of acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Peronema canescens leaves.

Methods: Antiplasmodial activity was measured in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum strains D10 and FCR3 by 72 h incubation at 37 °C in a candle jar. Parasitaemia was calculated by counting the parasite numbers in thin smears. In vitro cytotoxicity was assayed in Vero cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and reading the absorbency at 595 nm with an ELISA reader. The assessed parameters included: 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of antiplasmodial activity, IC50 of cytotoxic activity and the selectivity index of the Peronema canescens leaf extract.

Results: The IC50 values for the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts were 26.33±1.65, 37.96±8.17 and 12.26±1.05 μg/ml, respectively, against the Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain and 51.14±8.65, 70.22±14.13 and 34.85±6.04 μg/ml, respectively, against the FCR3 strain. For Vero cells, the IC50 values for the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts were 23.37±5.63, 629.46±24.85 and 634.00±144.82 μg/ml, respectively. The selectivity indices of these extracts were 0.89, 16.46 and 51.70, respectively, for the D10 strain and 0.46, 8.90 and 18.00, respectively, for the FCR3 strain.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Peronema canescens leaves had the highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity and the best selectivity index.

Keywords: Peronema canescens, Antiplasmodial activity, MTT method, Selectivity index, Cytotoxicity index, Plasmodium falciparum


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How to Cite
Suwandi, J. F., M. A. Wijayanti, and M. . “IN VITRO ANTIPLASMODIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF A SUNGKAI (PERONEMA CANESCENS) LEAF EXTRACT”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10, no. 10, Oct. 2018, pp. 109-13, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i10.25124.
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