GLYCATION INHIBITORS AND PROBIOTICS CAN AMELIORATE THE CHANGES CAUSED BY HIGH FRUCTOSE FEED
Objective: To evaluate the use of protein glycation inhibitors and probiotics to ameliorate secondary complications in diabetes and to improve gut microbiota respectively in high fructose fed Wistar rat.
Methods: The study was conducted on male Wistar rats for 7 d. Blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured using glucometer, serum parameters were analyzed using commercial kits, antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels, total reactive oxygen species were estimated using a fluorescent 2â€™, 7â€™-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) dye, and tissue fluorescence of liver, kidney and intestine were measured using a spectrofluorimeter.
Results: OGTT pattern shows significant increase in blood glucose of fructose fed rats i.e. 154 mg/dl while, in aminoguanidine (AMG) treated and gut microbiota modulated animals it is 137 and 119 mg/dl resp. after 30 min on glucose administration. Marked reduction was found in SOD 6.37 and 11.25 U/mg of protein and catalase 186 and 65.5 U/mg of protein in liver and kidney of fructose fed animals when compared to fructose+AMG and fructose+EUGI. There is 5-6 fold significant increase in general and specific tissue fluorescence of liver and kidney, and 2.2 fold increase in liver reactive oxygen species was observed in fructose fed group as compare to control animals. Significantly higher glycation was found in intestine of fructose fed animals (general fluorescence 2.1 and specific fluorescence 3.1 AU/mg), more than that of diabetic control rats (general fluorescence 0.9 and specific fluorescence 1.6 AU/mg), represented an evidence for adverse impact of excess fructose on healthy gut.
Conclusion: The use of protein glycation inhibitor and use of pre and probiotics significantly improved the serum parameters and would prevent progression to secondary complications.
2. Dethlefsen L, Eckburg PB, Bik EM, Relman DA. Assembly of the human intestinal microbiota. Trends Ecol Evol 2006;21:517-23.
3. Dethlefsen L, McFall-Ngai M, Relman DA. An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human-microbe mutualism and disease. Nature 2007;449:811-8.
4. Ley RE, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine. Cell 2006;124:837-48.
5. Aw W, Fukuda S. Understanding the role of the gut ecosystem in diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Investig 2018;9:5-12.
6. Bibbo S, Dore MP, Pes GM, Delitala G, Delitala AP. Is there a role for gut microbiota in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis? Ann Med 2017;49:11-22.
7. Knip M, Siljander H. The role of the intestinal microbiota in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2016;12:154-67.
8. Alison Abbott. Gut reaction: consumers are stocking up on live yoghurts and fermented drinks that claim to improve health. But is there any science behind the marketing of these â€˜probioticâ€™ products? Nature 2004;427:284-6.
9. Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA. An obesity associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006;444:1027-31.
10. Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature 2009;457:480-4.
11. Qin J, Li Y, Cai Z. A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Nature 2012;490:55-60.
12. Mishima E, Fukuda S, Shima H. Alteration of the intestinal environment by lubiprostone is associated with amelioration of adenine-induced CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol JASN 2015;26:1787-94.
13. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72:248-54.
14. Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 1972;247:3170-5.
15. Beers RF, Sizer IW. A Spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem 1952;195:133-40.
16. Yeligar SM, Harris FL, Hart CM, Brown LAS. Ethanol induces oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages via upregulation of NADPH oxidases. J Immunol 2012;188:3648-57.
17. Panaskar SN, Joglekar MM, Taklikar SS, Haldavnekar VS, Arvindekar AU. Aegle marmelos Correa leaf extract prevents secondary complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and demonstration of limonene as a potent antiglycating agent. J Pharm Pharmacol 2013;65:884-94.
18. Prakash P, Khanna V, Singh V, Jyoti A, Jain M, Keshari RS, et al. Atorvastatin protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in fructose-induced insulin resistant rats. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2011;25:285-97.
19. Cani PD, Possemiers S, Van de Wiele T, Guiot Y, Everard A, Rottier O, et al. Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut 2009;58:1091-103.
20. Everard A, Lazarevic V, Derrien M, Girard M, Muccioli GG. Responses of gut microbiota and glucose and lipid metabolism to prebiotics in genetic obese and diet-induced leptin-resistant mice. Diabetes 2011;60:2775-86.
21. Palacios T, Vitetta L, Coulson S, Madigan CD, Denyer GS, Caterson ID. The effect of a novel probiotic on metabolic biomarkers in adults with prediabetes and recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2017;18:7.
22. Abdul-Ghani MA, DeFronzo RA. Oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Miwa S, Beckman K, Muller F. editors. Oxidative stress in aging. Humana Press; Totowa NJ, USA; 2008. p. 191-211.
23. Giacco F, Brownlee M. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res 2010;107:1058-70.
24. Henriksen EJ, Diamond Stanic MK, Marchionne EM. Oxidative stress and the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Free Radical Biol Med 2011;51:993-9.
25. Wolff SP, Jiang, ZY, Hunt JV. Protein glycation and oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus and ageing. Free Radical Biol Med 1991;10:339-52.
26. El-Baz FK, Aly HF, Khalil WK, Ali GH, Hafiz NA, Saad SA. Potential role of Haematococcus pluvialis against diabetes induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:245-51.
27. Niedowicz DM, Daleke DL. The role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Cell Biochem Biophys 2005;43:289-330.
28. Sarhan KK, Mohammed, Alias, Mebin, Kumar R, Sambath. A review on novel uses of Vitamin E. J Crit Rev 2018;5:10-4.