• Hasan A. Khalaf Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-Iraq
  • Ibrahim S. Abbas Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-Iraq
  • Amani A. Tawfeeq Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants/Pharmacy, Ashur University Collage, Baghdad-Iraq
  • Monther F. Mahdi Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry/pharmacy, Ashur University Collage, Baghdad-Iraq


Objective: Plantago lanceoleta L. (ribwort plantain) is one of the important medicinal herbs which is widespread fortune available in Iraq, that have a wide range of medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to determine, isolate and identify verbascoside and aucubin in Iraqi P. lanceoleta L. by using different chromatographic and spectrometric methods.

Methods: Verbascoside and aucubin were isolated and quantified by preparative TLC, and then they were determined by the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. Aucubin and catalpol in the plant extract were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS); aucubin and verbascoside that isolated from the plant sample were examined by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and LC-MS, respectively.

Results: The result showed that the Iraqi P. lanceoleta L. contains 1.74 percent (verbascoside) and 0.24 percent (aucubin) of dry powdered leaves. Each TLC-isolated compound showed a single spot on the HPTLC plate, which give an idea about the purity of the isolated compound. Aucubin (with catalpol) and verbascoside both are detected by LC-MS in different ionization mode. Many functional groups were identified in the TLC-isolated aucubin by FT-IR.

Conclusion: The Iraqi P. lanceoleta L. showed a high content of verbasoside, and it is a very rich source for this compound, which can be easily isolated by TLC and subjected to many pharmacological studies. The extract of the young leaves of this plant gave a little amount of aucubin, and it is easy to obtain a higher content from the older leaves.

Keywords: Plantago lanceoletaL., ribwortplantain, verbascoside, aucubin


Download data is not yet available.


1. Tack AJ, Laine AL. Ecological and evolutionary implications of spatial heterogeneity during the off?season for a wild plant pathogen. New Phytol 2014;202:297-308.
2. Stewart AV. Plantain (Plantagolanceolata) potential pasture species. In: Proceedings of the Conference-New Zealand Grassland Association; 1996. p. 77-86.
3. Lukova P, Iliev I, Nikolova M. Comparative morphological and qualitative pharmaceutical analysis of plantago media L. leaves with P. major L. and P. lanceoleta L. leaves. IJMRPS 2017;4:20-5.
4. Grigore A, Bubueanu C, Pirvu L, Ionita L, Toba G. Plantagolanceolata L. crops-source of valuble raw material for various industrial applications. Sci Papers Series A Agronomy 2015;58:207-14.
5. Handjieva N, Saadi H, Evstatieva L. Iridoid glueosides from Plantagoaltissima L., Plantagolanceolata L., Plantagoatrata Hoppe and Plantagoargentea Chaix. Z. Naturforsch C Bio Sci 1991;46:963-5.
6. Maksyutina NP. Hydroxycinnamic acids of Plantago major and P. lanceolata. Chem Nat Compd 1971;7:795.
7. Murai M, Tamayama Y, Nishibe S. Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantagolanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema. Planta Med 1995;6:479-80.
8. Bräutigam M, Franz G. Structural features of Plantagolanceolata mucilage. Planta Med 1985;51:293-7.
9. Wichtl M. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals: a handbook for practice on a scientific basis, 3rd edition. Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004. p. 456-60.
10. Haznagy A. Recent results with plantaginis folium (Plantain leaves). Herba Hung 1970;9:57-63.
11. Fons F, Rapior S, Gargadennec A, Andary C, Bessiere JM. Volatile components of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). Acta Bot Gall 1998;145:265-9.
12. Rymkiewicz A. Studies on the species of the genus Plantago L. with reference to carpology and chemotaxonomy. Monogr Bot 1979;57:71-103.
13. Navarrete S, Kemp PD, Pain SJ, Back PJ. Bioactive compounds, aucubin, and acteoside, in plantain (Plantagolanceolata L.) and their effect on in vitro rumen fermentation. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2016;222:158-67.
14. Yang KH, Kwon TJ, Choe SY, Yun HS, Chang IM. Protective effect of Aucuba japonica against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Drug Chemtoxicol 1983;6:429-41.
15. Jin L, Xue HY, Jin LJ, Li SY, Xu YP. Antioxidant and pancreas-protective effect of aucubin on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;582:162-7.
16. Wang SN, Xie GP, Qin CH, Chen YR, Zhang KR. Aucubin prevents interleukin-1 beta-induced inflammation and cartilage matrix degradation via inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway in rat articular chondrocytes. Int Immunopharmacol 2015;24:408-15.
17. Urbina AO, Martin ML, Fernandez B, San Roman L, Cubillo L. In vitro antispasmodic activity of peracetylatedpenstemonoside, aucubin and catalpol. Planta Med 1994;60:512-5.
18. Li Y, Sato T, Metori K, Koike K, Che QM, Takahashi S. The promoting effects of geniposidic acid and aucubin in Eucommiaulmoides oliver leaves on collagen synthesis. Biological Pharm Bull 1998;21:1306-10.
19. Kim YM, Sim U, Shin Y, Kim Kwon Y. Aucubin promotes neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells and axonal regeneration in sciatic nerves. Experimental Neurobiol 2014;23:238-45.
20. Park KS. Aucubin, a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside inhibits TNF-?-induced inflammatory responses through suppression of NF-?B activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cytokine 2013;62:407-12.
21. Wang HQ, Xu YX, Zhu CQ. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 by acteoside through ERK and PI3 K/Akt pathway confer neuroprotection against beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity. Neurotoxic Res 2012;21:368-78.
22. Filho AG, Morel AF, Adolpho L, Ilha V, Giralt E, Tarrago T, et al. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddlejabrasiliensis Jacq. Ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity. Phytother Res 2012;26:1472-5.
23. Quirantes Pine R, Herranz Lopez M, Funes L, Borras Linares I, Micol V, Segura Carretero A, et al. Phenylpropanoids and their metabolites are the major compounds responsible for blood-cell protection against oxidative stress after administration of Lippiacitriodora in rats. Phytomedicine 2013;20:1112-8.
24. Zhang F, Jia Z, Deng Z, Wei Y, Zheng R, Yu L. In vitro modulation of telomerase activity, telomere length and cell cycle in MKN45 cells by verbascoside. Planta Med 2002;68:115-8.
25. Lee KW, Kim HJ, Lee YS, Park HJ, Choi JW, Ha J, et al. Acteoside inhibits human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cell proliferation via inducing cell cycle arrest at G 0/G 1 phase and differentiation into monocyte. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1928-36.
26. Lee JH, Lee JY, Kang HS, Jeong CH, Moon H, Whang WK, et al. The effect of acteoside on histamine release and arachidonic acid release in RBL-2H3 mast cells. Arch Pharm Res 2006;29:508.
27. Song HS, Choi MY, Ko MS, Jeong JM, Kim YH, Jang BH, et al. Competitive inhibition of cytosolic Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A 2 by acteoside in RBL-2H3 cells. Arch Pharm Res 2012;35:905-10.
28. Pastore S, Potapovich A, Kostyuk V, Mariani V, Lulli D, De Luca C, et al. Plant polyphenols effectively protect HaCaT cells from ultraviolet C–triggered necrosis and suppress inflammatory chemokine expression. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1171:305-13.
29. Korkina L, Kostyuk V, De Luca C, Pastore S. Plant phenyl-propanoids as emerging anti-inflammatory agents. Mini Rev Med Chem 2011;11:823-35.
30. Tita I, Mogosanu GD, Tita MG. Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants from the South-West of Romania. Farmacia 2009;57:141-56.
31. Neves JM, Matos C, Moutinho C, Queiroz G, Gomes LR. Ethnopharmacological notes about ancient uses of medicinal plants in trás-os-montes (northern of Portugal). J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:270-83.
32. Kültür ?. Medicinal plants used in K?rklareli province (Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol 2007;111:341-64.
33. Kuhn MA, Winston D. Herbal therapy and supplements: a scientific and traditional approach. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2000. p. 262.
34. Farahpour MR, Heydari A. Wound healing effect of the hydroethanolic extract of ribwort plantain leaves in rabbits. Res Opin Anim Vet Sci 2015;5:143-7.
35. Yasari E, Vahedi A. Study of iranian biospherical reservation areas for medicinal plants diversity. World Acad Sci Eng Tech Int J Biomed Biol Eng 2011;5:53-6.
36. Salwe KJ, Sachdev DE. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and fruit peel of P. granatum in experimental animals. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:137-41.
37. Ibrahim NA, El-Hawary SS, Ali SA, Mohammed MMD, Refaat EE. Chemical constituents of Paulownia tomentosa (thunb). FAM. Scrophulariaceae and its role against *hyperglycemia. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:2445-66.
38. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. London, Champman, and Hall; 1973. p. 100.
39. Kemper FH. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of herbal medicines: thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography of Chinese drugs. Phytomedicine 2011;18:431-2.
40. Sarkhail P, Nikan M, Sarkheil P, Gohari AR, Ajani Y, Hosseini R, et al. Quantification of verbascoside in medicinal species of phlomis and their genetic relationships. DARU 2014;22:32.
41. Frum Y, Viljoen AM, Van Heerden FR. Verbascoside and luteolin-5-O-?-D-glucoside isolated from Hallerialucida L. exhibit antagonistic anti-oxidant properties in vitro. S Afr J Bot 2007;73:583-7.
42. Jang SS, Shirai Y, Uchida M, Wakisaka M. Production of mono sugar from acid hydrolysis of seaweed. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:1953-63.
43. Franz M, Fischer BM, Walther M. The christiansen effect in terahertz time-domain spectra of coarse-grained powders. Appl Phys Lett 2008;92:21107.
44. Pal P, Singh SB, Singh A. Determination of physiochemical properties, antioxidant constituents by high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, and antioxidant activity of Cucurbita maxima seeds. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:280-3.
45. Rajamani M, Krishnasamy K, Abubakker N. High-performance thin layer chromatography analysis and free radical scavenging potential of south Indian orthodox black tea. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:449-55.
46. Orth HC, Rentel C, Schmidt PC. Isolation, purity analysis and stability of hyperforin as a standard material from Hypericumperforatum L. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:193-200.
47. Silverstein RM, Webster FX, Kiemle DJ, Bryce DL. Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. 7th Ed. John Wileyand Sons; 2014. p. 70-110.
26 Views | 29 Downloads
How to Cite
Khalaf, H., I. Abbas, A. Tawfeeq, and M. Mahdi. “DETERMINATION, ISOLATION, AND IDENTIFICATION OF AUCUBIN AND VERBASCOSIDE IN THE LEAVES OF IRAQI PLANTAGO LANCOLETA L. USING DIFFERENT DETECTING METHODS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 11, no. 2, Dec. 2018, pp. 74-80, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2019v11i2.30566.
Original Article(s)