CHARACTERIZATION OF KAPOK PERICARPIUM MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE PRODUCED OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS USING PURIFIED CELLULASE FROM TERMITE (MACROTERMES GILVUS)
Objective: This study aimed to increase the yield of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from kapok pericarpium alpha-cellulose produced by enzymatic hydrolysis using purified cellulase from Termites (Macrotermes gilvus) and to compare the characteristics with the reference product.
Methods: In this research, MCC was prepared from kapok pericarpium powder through the chemical isolation process of alpha-cellulose, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with purified cellulase from Macrotermes gilvus. The yield was improved by using purified cellulase in optimized temperature, pH, and hydrolysis time. Identification was carried out by using ZnCl and infrared spectrophotometry, followed by characterization of MCC include particle size analysis (PSA) and diffractogram pattern (X-Ray Diffraction). The results were compared with Avicel PH 101 as the reference product.
Results: Purified cellulase from Macrotermes gilvus showed high cellulose activity. Cellulose in the concentration of 11.743 U/ml formed 49 mm clear zone area with cellulolytic index 7.16 that similar to the formed clear zone area of Trichoderma reesei (50 mm), the optimum hydrolysis condition was achieved at 50 °C, pH 6.0, in 2 h, which produced 80% yield of MCC. Produced MCC was analyzed with ZnCl and FTIR spectrum resulting in positive results, similar to reference. The results of the organoleptic test, particle size analysis, and diffractogram pattern (X-Ray Diffraction) showed crystalline characteristics of MCC is similar to the reference (Avicel PH 101).
Conclusion: Cellulase Macrotermes gilvus yielded 80% MCC and higher enzymatic activity than Trichoderma reesei. Based on the organoleptic test, particle size analysis, and diffractogram pattern observation, MCC from kapok pericarpium has shown similar characteristics to reference (Avicel pH 101) and might be potential to be further developed.
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