PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXYPROPYL METHYLCELLULOSE PRODUCED FROM α-CELLULOSE BETUNG BAMBOO (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER) AND IT’S EVALUATION ON GEL FORMULATION
Keywords:Betung bamboo, Optimization, Characterization, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Gel
Objective: This study aim to obtain the optimum condition of preparation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) produced from α-cellulose betung bamboo, physicochemical properties of HPMC powder and its characteristics in a gel formulation.
Methods: HPMC of betung bamboo (HPMC BB) were optimized by central composite design (CCD) using three variables (sodium hydroxide concentration, dimethyl sulfate concentration, and temperature) and five levels (0,±1, and±α). The suggested optimum condition was subjected to further characterization. HPMC BB was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, particle size analyzer (PSA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared to HPMC 60SH as the reference. Then, HPMC BB was used as a gelling agent in a gel formulation and the gel was evaluated, including appearance and homogeneity, pH, viscosity, and spreadability.
Results: Optimum condition of preparation of HPMC BB was using sodium hydroxide 27.68% (w/v) and 1.26 ml dimethyl sulfate (based on 1 g α-cellulose) at 58.11 °C which resulted in molar substitution 0.21 and degree of substitution 2.09. The results showed that HPMC BB was a fine powder with yellowish-white color, odorless and tasteless, pH 7.02, residue on ignition 1.39%, methoxy groups content 28.56%, hydroxypropoxy groups content 7.09%, mean particle size 98.595 μm, loss on drying 3.62%, and moisture content 7.47%. Flow properties of HPMC BB classified in the fair category. The infrared spectrum and diffraction patterns were relatively similar to HPMC 60SH. The gel has a good homogeneity and spreadability and viscosity 142.5 mPa⋅s. pH 6.37.
Conclusion: Based on the comparison to reference, HPMC BB showed relatively similar physicochemical and powder properties. However, HPMC BB is not recommended as a gelling agent in gel formulation because it has a low viscosity.
Scurlock JMO, Dayton DC, Hames B. Bamboo: an overlooked biomass resource. Oak Ridge: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 2000.
Dransfield S, Widjaja EA. Plant resources of South-East Asia No.7: Bamboos. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers; 1995.
Quattrocchi UFLS. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Boca Raton: CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group; 2012.
Loiwatu M, Manuhuwa E. Chemical component and anatomical feature of three bamboo species from seram, maluku [Komponen Kimia dan Anatomi Tiga Jenis Bambu dari Seram, Maluku]. Agritech 2008;28:76-83.
Nasatto PL, Pignon F, Silveira JLM, Duarte MER, Noseda MD, Rinaudo M. Methylcellulose, a cellulose derivative with original physical properties and extended applications. Polymers 2015;7:777-803.
Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Quinn ME. editors. Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients. 6th Ed. Grayslake and washington DC: American Pharmacist Association and Pharmaceutical Press; 2009.
Vieira JG, Filho GR, Meireles CDS, Faria FAC, Gomide DD, Pasquini D. Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose from cellulose extracted from mango seeds for use as a mortar additive. Polimeros 2012;22:80-7.
Abdel Halim ES, Alanazi HH, Al-Deyab SS. Utilization of olive tree branch cellulose in synthesis of hydroxypropyl carboxymethyl cellulose. Carbohydr Polym 2015;127:124-34.
Hutomo GS. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose derivate from Pod Husk Kakao (Theobrome cacao L.)[Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Turunan Selulosa dari Pod Husk Kakao (Theobrome cacao L.)]. Dissertation. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2012.
Viera RGP, Filho GR, Assuncao RMND, Meireles CS, Vieira JG, Oliveira GSD. Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose from sugar cane bagasse cellulose. Carbohydr Polym 2007;67:182-9.
Suryadi H, Harmita, Akbar MH, Lestari P. Characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose produced from α-cellulose betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) and it’s application in tablet formulation. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:123-9.
Sharma R, Varshney VK, Chauhan GS. Hydroxypropylation of cellulose isolated from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) with respect to hydroxypropoxyl content and rheological behavior of the hydroxypropyl cellulose. J Appl Polym Sci 2009;113:2450-5.
Kharismi RRAY, Sutriyo, Suryadi H. Preparation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose produce from betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) through acid hydrolysis. J Young Pharm 2018;10:79-83.
Bushra R, Shoaib MH, Ali H, Zafar F, Naeem MI, Aslam N, et al. Formulation design and optimization of aceclofenac tablets (100 mg) using central composite design with response surface methodology. Latt Am J Pharm 2014;33:1009-18.
Aziz DE, Abdelbary AA, Elassasy AI. Implementing central composite design for developing transdermal diacerein-loaded niosomes: ex vivo permeation and in vivo deposition. Curr Drug Delivery 2018;15:1330-42.
Johnson DP. Spectrophotometric determination of the hydroxypropyl group in starch ethers. J Anal Chem 1969;41:859.
United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 39–NF 34. Hypromellose monograph. Rockville: The United States Pharmacopoeial Convention; 2015.
United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 38–NF 33. Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders. Rockville: The United States Pharmacopoeial Convention; 2014.
United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 27–NF 22. Powder Flow. Rockville: The United States Pharmacopoeial Convention; 2004.
Suryadi H, Sutriyo, Sari HS, Rosikhoh D. Preparation of microcrystalline cellulose from water hyacinth powder by enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase of local isolate. J Young Pharm 2017;9:19-23.
Bhinge SD, Bhutkar MA, Randive DS, Wadkar GH, Todkar SS, Kakade PM, et al. Formulation development and evaluation of antimicrobial polyherbal gel. Ann Pharm Fr 2017;73:349-58.
Dantas MGB, Reis SAGB, Damasceno CMD, Rolim LA, Neto PJR, Carvalho FO, et al. Development and evaluation of stability of a gel formulation containing the monoterpene borneol. Sci World J 2016;1-4. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7394685
Manna S, Lakshmi US, Racharla M, Sinha P, Kanthal LK, Kumar SPN. Bioadhesive HPMC gel containing gelatin nanoparticles for intravaginal delivery of tenofovir. J Appl Pharm Sci 2016;6:22-9.
Joshua JM, Anilkumar A, Verjina C, Vasudevan DT, Surendran S. Formulation and evaluation of antiaging phytosomal gel. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:409-22.
Othmer K. Encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th Ed. Vol 5. Michigan: Wiley; 2001.
Riviani E. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) pondoh super kernel [Sintesis dan karakterisasi hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) dari biji salak (Salacca edulis Reinw) pondoh super]. Thesis. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2016.
Ohwoavworhua FO, Adelakun TA, Okhamafe AO. Processing pharmaceutical grade microcrystalline cellulose from groundnut husk: extraction methods and characterization. Int J Green Pharm 2009;3:97-104.
Danaei M, Dehghankhold M, Ataei S, Hasanzadeh DF, Javanmard R, Dokhani A, et al. Impact of particle size and polydispersity index on the clinical applications of lipidic nanocarrier systems. Pharmaceutics 2018;10:1-17.
Heng PWS, Chan LW, Easterbrook MG, Li X. Investigation of the inﬂuence of mean HPMC particle size and number of polymer particles on the release of aspirin from swellable hydrophilic matrix tablets. J Controlled Release 2001;76:39-49.
Draelos ZD, Thaman LA. Cosmetic formulation of skin care product. New York: Taylor and Francis Group; 2006.
Zebua NF, Putra EDL, Harahap U, Kaban J. Durian seed utilization as a base material of topical gel. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:174-7.
Garg A, Deepeka A, Garg S, Singla AK. Spreading of semisolid formulation. Pharmaceutical Technology; 2002.
Majewicz TG, Ford C. Preparation of CMC with improved substituent uniformity using borax. United States Patent; 1981.