• Ilma Nugrahani School of Pharmacy ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132
  • Slamet Ibrahim School of Pharmacy ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132
  • Rachmat Mauludin School of Pharmacy ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132
  • Mirrah Almira School of Pharmacy ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132


Objective: Hydrate is a crystal with a certain amount of water molecules involved stoichiometrically in its lattice. The purpose of this study was to develop the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for observing the hydrate transformation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which were Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Monohydrate (CM), Levofloxacin Hemihydrate (LH), and Pefloxacin Mesylate Dihydrate (PMD), after a certain grinding process was given to them.

Methods: CM, LH, and PMD which had been ground were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively by FTIR. The results from FTIR were compared to the results from standardized methods that are commonly used for measuring the hydrate transformation, namely Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Karl Fischer Titrimetry (KFT).

Results: The Infrared (IR) spectra of CM was shown in the area of 3500-3700 cm-1. The Area under the Curve (AUC) of the derivatives of CM’s IR spectra was linear with the concentration of ground CM in the KBr plate, as shown by the coefficient of linearity, R, of 0.9996. FTIR can be used to observe the hydrate transformation of CM by measuring the AUC of the derivatives of its IR spectra. However, FTIR cannot be used to characterize the hydrate transformation of LH and PMD because the IR peaks of both antibiotics were too small to be detected and measured.

Conclusion: FTIR can analyze CM’s hydrate qualitative and quantitatively. FTIR can be used to study the hydrate transformation of CM but it cannot be used for LH and PMD. The structure of the hydrate, the amount and the position of water molecules, and also the interaction of water with other atoms in the crystal lattice are predicted to be the factors that can lower the intensity of O-H hydrate stretch peak in an IR spectrum of a hydrate.


Keywords: Transformation of hydrate, FTIR, Grinding, Fluoriqunolone antibiotics


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How to Cite
Nugrahani, I., S. Ibrahim, R. Mauludin, and M. Almira. “HYDRATE TRANSFORMATION STUDY OF FLUOROQUINOLONE ANTIBIOTICS USING FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (FTIR)”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 8, June 2015, pp. 246-52, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/4738.
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