NEUROTOX: A UNIQUE DATABASE FOR ANIMAL NEUROTOXINS
Keywords:Neurotoxins, Biological databases, Protein modeling, RDBMS, Toxin databases
Objective: A wide range of toxic effects against other species are affected through potential protein molecules called neurotoxins. Among various kinds of toxins, neurotoxins play a critical role in life of other organisms (especially humans). So it is relatively important to know more about neurotoxins and their action on biological systems. All around the world several research works are progressing in the area of neurotoxins.
Methods: Here we present NEUROTOX, a database which contains more than 1400 toxin entries originating from more than ~248 different species. The data was enriched with the related data derived from various other protein sequence as well as structural databases and several literature resources. Each entry of toxin contains 18 fields providing detailed information on neurotoxins and their source, fasta formatted protein sequences, molecular weight, toxicity information along with their literature references.
Results: In addition, 1086 computationally resolved 3D structures of toxin proteins with validation results were made available for download.
Conclusion: The easy to use and freely accessible NEUROTOX database is available online at http: //www. neuro-tox. org and it provides the large range data on toxins.
Schiavo G, Matteoli M, Montecucco C. Neurotoxins Affecting Neuroexocytosis. Physiol Rev 2000;80:718-66.
Shen GS, Layer RT, McCabe RT. Conopeptides: from deadly venoms to novel therapeutics. Drug Discovery Today 2000;5:98â€“06.
Dutton JL, Craik DJ. Alpha-Conotoxins: nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists as pharmacological tools and potential drug leads. Curr Med Chem 2001;8:327-44.
Rogers DF. Scorpion venoms: taking the sting out of lung disease. Thorax 1996;51:546â€“8.
He QY, He QZ, Deng XC, Yao L, Meng E, Liu ZH, et al. ATDB: a uni-database platform for animal toxins. Nucleic Acids Res 2008;36:D293â€“7.
Jungo F, Bairoch A. Tox-Prot, the toxin protein annotation program of the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase. Toxicon 2005;45:293â€“01.
Lim E, Pon A, Djoumbou Y, Knox C, Shrivastava S, Guo AC, et al. T3DB: a comprehensively annotated database of common toxins and their targets. Nucleic Acids Res 2010;38:D781â€“6.
Shao Y, Harrison EM, Bi D, Tai C, He X, Ou HY, et al. TADB: a web-based resource for Type 2 toxinâ€“antitoxin loci in bacteria and archaea. Nucleic Acids Res 2010;39:D606â€“11.
Herzig V, Wood DLA, Newell F, Chaumeil PA, Kaas Q, Binford GJ, et al. Arachno Server 2.0, an updated online resource for spider toxin sequences and structures Nucleic Acids Res 2011;39:D653â€“7.
Kaas Q, Westermann JC, Halai R, Wang CK, Craik DJ. Cono Server, a database for conopeptide sequences and structures. Bioinformatics 2008;24:445â€“6.
Tan PT, Veeramani A, Srinivasan KN, Ranganathan S, Brusic V. Scorpion2: a database for structure-function analysis of scorpion toxins. Toxicon 2006;47:356â€“63.
Chakraborty A, Ghosh S, Chowdhary G, Maulik U, Chakrabarti S. Dbeth: A database of bacterial exotoxins for human. Nucleic Acids Res 2012;40:D615â€“20.
Zhou CE, Smith J, Lam M, Zemla A, Dyer MD, Slezak T. MvirDB-a microbial database of protein toxins, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes for bio-defence applications. Nucleic Acids Res 2007;35:D391â€“94.
Bairoch A, Apweiler R, Wu CH, Barker WC, Boeckmann B, Ferro S, et al. The Universal Protein Resource (Uni Prot). Nucleic Acids Res 2008;33:D154â€“9.
Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, et al. The protein data bank. Nucleic Acids Res 2000;28:235â€“42.
Sali A, Blundell TL. Comparative protein modelling by satisfaction of spatial restraints. J Mol Biol 1993;234:779-15.
Barani Kumar R, Shanmuga Priya B, Xavier Suresh M, Narendrakumar G. Homology modeling of short chain neurotoxins: an initiation towards understanding their functional inference. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:164-8.
Laskowski RA, MacArthur MW, Moss DS, Thornton JM. Procheck: a program to check the stereochemical quality of protein structures. J Appl Cryst 1993;26:283-91.