ESSENTIAL OILS ANALYSIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS, SALVIA OFFICINALIS AND MENTHA PIPERITA CULTIVATED IN AGADIR (MOROCCO)

  • Nezha Mattazi Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
  • Abdellah Farah Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
  • Mouhcine Fadil Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
  • Marwa Chraibi Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
  • Kawtar Fikri Benbrahim Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology Saïss. Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco

Abstract

Objective: This study was designed to determine the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of hydro-distillated essential oils (EOs) extracted from leaves of three aromatic and medicinal plants cultivated in Agadir (Morocco): Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita and Salvia officinalis.

Methods: EOs chemical composition was determined by GC and GC/MS. Disc diffusion method and agar dilution technique were used to evaluate their antibacterial activity against eight microbial strains. Moreover, a statistical study, consisting in a student test, was conducted.

Results: The most important constituents identified were α-pinene (34.83%), a-thujone (24.05%) and Menthol (41, 23%) respectively in the Rosemary, the Sage and Mint. All tested EOs exhibited an antibacterial activity at different levels against the studied strains. Micrococcus luteus was the most sensitive to the tested EOs with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values of 5.8, 2.35 and 20 mg/ml for Rosemary, Sage and Mint EOs respectively. Thus, these EOs can be used as antibacterial supplement in the developing countries to develop new therapeutic agents.

Conclusions: Additional in vivo studies and clinical trials would be needed to justify and further evaluate their potential.

 

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Essential oils, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Al-Hadi, Luma M. The antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of peppermint and Bay leaf against Staphylococcus aureus. Basic Sci 2011;23:146-50.
2. Fabio A, Cermelli C, Fabio G, Nicoetti P, Quaglio P. Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on microorganisms responsible for respiratory infection. J Phytother Res 2007;21:374-7.
3. Scavroni J, Boaro CSF, Marques MOM, Ferreira LC. Yield and composition of the essential oil of Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae) grown with biosolid. Braz J Plant Physiol 2005;17:345-52.
4. Serafini M, Bellocco R, Ekstrom AM. Total antioxidant potential of fruit and vegetables and risk of gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 2002;123:985-91.
5. Edris AE. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytother Res 2007;21:308-23.
6. Saeed S, Naim A, Tariq P. In vitro antibacterial activity of Peppermint. Pak J Bot 2006;38:869-72.
7. Clevenger JF. Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. J Am Pharm Assoc 1928;17:345-9.
8. Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 4th Ed. Illinois: Allured Publishing Co. Carol Stream; 2007.
9. Prudent D, Perineau F, Bessiere JM, Michel GM, Baccou JC. Analysis of the essential oil of wild oregano from Martinique (Coleus aromaticus Benth.)–Evaluation of its bacterioatatic and fungistatic properties. J Essent Oil Res 1995;7:165-73.
10. Delaquis PJ, Stanich K, Girard B, Mazza G. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils. Int J Food Microbiol 2002;74:101-9.
11. Dagnelie P. Théories et méthodes statistiques. Tome 2. Vol. 1. Presses agronomiques Gempoux; 1973.
12. Tomi F, Bradesi P, Bighelli A, Casanova J. Computer-aided of individual components of essential oils using carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. J Magn Reson Anal 1995;1:25-34.
13. Ayadi S, Ben Salah D, Hedhili A, Abderrabba M. A bacteriological study of the Thymus capitatus essential oil of Tunisia. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 2005;3:39-41.
14. Jamshidi R, Afzali Z, Afzali D. Chemical composition of hydrodistillation essential oil of rosemary in different origins in Iran and comparison with other countries. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2009;5:78-81.
15. Fellah S. Valorisation de l’huile essentielle de Salvia officinalis de Tunis, extraction et étude physico-chimique et théorique. Tunis: DEA en chimie organique Fac des Sciences de Tunis; 2001.
16. Lui T, Sui X, Zhang R, Zu Y, Zhang L, Zhang Y, et al. Application of ionic liquids based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction of carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis. J Chromatogr 2011;1218:8480-9.
17. El Akrem H, Chraief I, Abedrabba M, Bouix M, Leveau J, Hammami M, et al. Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: Their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat. Int J Food Microbiol 2008;125:242-51.
18. Miladinović D, Miladinović LJ. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of sage from Serbia. Chem Technol 2000;2:97-100.
19. Palmeira A, Rodrigues A, Martinez-de-Oliveira J. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2006;55:1367-73.
20. Gupta C, Garg AP, Uniyal RC, Kumari A. Antimicrobial activity of some herbal oils against common food-borne pathogens. Afr J Microbiol Res 2008;2:258-61.
21. Mirjalili MH, Salehi P, Sonboli A, Vala MM. Essential oil variation of Salvia officinalis aerial parts during its phenological cycle. Chem Nat Compd 2006;42:19-23.
22. Djamel D, Aïderb M, Yangüelad CJ, Idire L, Gómezd D, Roncalésd P. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature. Meat Sci 2012;92:667–74.
23. Bupesh G, Amutha C, Nandagopal S, Ganeshkumar A, Supereshkumar P. Antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita L. (peppermint) from leaf extracts–a medicinal plant. Acta Agric Slov 2007;89:73-9.
24. Celikel N, Kavas G. Antimicrobial properties of some essential oils against some pathogenic microorganisms. Czech J Food Sci 2008;26:174-81.
25. Bekkara F, Bousmaha L, Taleb BSA, Boti JB, Casanova J. Composition chimique de l’huile essentielle de Rosmarinus officinalis L poussant à l’état spontané et cultivé de la région de Tlemcen. Biol Santé 2007;7:6-11.
26. Benhabiles NEH, Aït-Amar H. Comparative study of Algeria’s Rosmarinus eriocalys and Rosmarinus officinalis. Perfum Flavor 2000;26:40-8.
27. Soliman FM, Kashoury EA, Fathy MM, Gonaid MH. Analysis and biological activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour Fragr J 1994;9:29-33.
28. Santos-Gomes PC, Ferreira MF. Organ-and season-dependent variation in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated at two different sites. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:2908-16.
29. Fellah S, Romhane M, Abderraba M. Extraction et étude des huiles esentielles de Salvia officinalis L cueillie dans deux régions différentes de la Tunisie. J Soc Alger Chim 2006;16:193-202.
30. Kumar AT, Malik A. Antimicrobial potential and chemical composition of Mentha piperita oil in liquid and vapour phase against food spoiling microorganisms. Food Control 2011;22:1707-14.
31. Singh I, Kapoor P, Pandey SK, Singh UK, Singh RK. Studies on essential oils: part 10;antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother Res 2002;16:680-2.
32. Delamare LAPL, Ivete TMP, Artico L, Atti-Serafini L, Echeverrrigary S. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia triloba L. cultivated in South Brazil. Food Chem 2007;100:603-8.
33. Marino M, Bersani C, Comi G. Impedance measurements to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lamiaceae and Compositae. Int J Food Microbiol 2001;67:187-95.
34. Abdul Rahman MS, Thangaraj S, Salique SM, Khan KF, Natheer SE. Antimicrobial and biochemical analysis of some spices extract against food spoilage pathogens. Int J Food Saf 2010;12:71-5.
35. Nikitina LE, Startseva VA, Vakulenko IA, Khismatulina IM, Lisovskaya SA, Glushko NP, et al. Synthesis and antifungal activity of compounds of the pinane series. Pharma Chem J 2009;43:251-4.
36. Oussalah M, Caillet S, Saucier L, Lacroix M. Inhibitory effects of selected plant essential oils on Pseudomonas putida growth, a bacterial spoilage meat. Meat Sci 2006;73:236-44.
37. Tiwari BK, Valdramidis VP, O’Donnell CP, Muthukumarappan K, Bourke P, Cullen PJ. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:5987-6000.
38. Mohsenzadeh M. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium. Pak J Biol Sci 2007;10:3693-7.
39. Meincken M, Holroyd DL, Rautenbach M. Atomic force microscopy study of the effect of antimicrobial peptides on the cell envelope of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005;49:4085-92.
40. Paulo L, Ferreira S, Gallardo E, Queiroz JA, Domingues F. Antimicrobial activity and effects of resveratrol on human pathogenic bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;26:1533-8.
41. Sartoratto A, Machado ALM, Delarmelina C, Figueira GM, Duarte MCT, Rehder VLG. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 2004;34:1517-20.
42. Kone WM, Atindehon KK, Terreaux C, Hostettmann K, Traore D, Dosso M. Traditional medicine in north cote-dIvoire: screening of so plants for antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93:43-9.
43. Tohidpour A, Sattari M, Omidbaigi R, Yadegar A, Nazemi J. Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytomedicine 2010;17:142-5.
44. Tepe B, Donmez E, Unlu M, Candan F, Daferera D, Vardar-Unlu G, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of S. cryptantha (Montbret et Aucher ex Benth.) S. multicaulis (Vahl). Food Chem 2004;84:519-25.
45. Pierozan MK, Pauletti GF, Rota L, Atti dos Santos AC, Lerin LA, Di Lucci M, et al. Chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. Ciênc Tecnol Aliment 2009;24:764-70.
46. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol 1999;86:985-90.
47. Rami K, Zheng-Guo L. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. collected in Syria. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:8397-402.
48. Santoyo S, Cavero S, Jaime L, Ibanez E, Senorans FJ, Reglero G. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil obtained via supercritical fluid extraction. J Food Prot 2005;68:790-5.
49. Wilkinson MJ, Sweet J, Poppy GM. Risk assessment of GM plants: avoiding gridlock. Trends Plant Sci 2003;8:208–12.
50. Bagamboula CF, Uyttendaele M, Debevere J. Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food Microbiol 2004;21:33-42.
51. Kalemba D, Kunicka A. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem 2003;10:813-29.
Statistics
554 Views | 677 Downloads
How to Cite
Mattazi, N., A. Farah, M. Fadil, M. Chraibi, and K. F. Benbrahim. “ESSENTIAL OILS ANALYSIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS, SALVIA OFFICINALIS AND MENTHA PIPERITA CULTIVATED IN AGADIR (MOROCCO)”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 9, July 2015, pp. 73-79, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/6071.
Section
Original Article(s)