ATTRITION CAUSES AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: THE CASE OF GONDAR UNIVERSITY, GONDAR, NORTH WEST ETHIOPIA
Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to examine major contributing factors for student's attrition in Gondar University.
Methods: Questionnaire was used a means to obtain students response, simple random sampling used and four hundred fifty participants were involved. Â The data analyses were done based on the percentage, rank ordered and percentage comparison.
Results: Lack of time management, carelessness, tension, fear of failure and lack of adequate effort were the top five personal factors for student's attrition. Among the major challenging factors in the university environment; lack of facilities, adjustment problem with the campus life, and lack of special support services were identified reason for dropout. High work load, use of difficult assessment techniques, low grade, style of learning and poor quality of teaching were the top five reasons for attrition in academic aspect, and Â variations had been observed in sex, male students had reported low grade as the first most reason for attrition whereas females reported high work load. Lack of money for learning (coping, buying books, for assignment typing), shortage of money to support oneself (pocket money) were reasons for students dropout, however there is gender difference and male students more attributed these economic factors for students attrition than females. Further, friends, parents, partner, academic adviser and instructors were nearest people students would like to seek advice from or share their secret when they were thinking of dropout. And, there had been gender differences in people to whom students discussed with, that is, male students prefer to consult with academic adviser whereas females prefers to discussed with their parents. Good preparation/orientation program in the beginning of a semester, participating short term training (study skill, time management, life skills), increased support from academic advisor, improvement in financial situations and domestic (family duties) were the top five possible solution that improve students attrition problems. There is gender difference in the possible solution that changes students less likely to dropout; male students ranked participating short term training, making friends on campus, improvement in financial situations, whereas female students had agreed good preparation orientation a head of a semester, increased support from academic advisor and teaching staff were identified as a solution for the problem.Key Terms: Attrition Causes, Students' Attrition, Gondar University
1. Zenawi A, MekonnenA , Yemane Z, Alemayehu M. Psychosocial and Academic Antecedents
of Attrition: The Case of First Year at Risk Students at Mekelle University. Mekelle
University; Unpublished Material, 2009.
2. Rendon L, Jalomo RE, Nora A. The theoretical considerations in the study of minority student
retention in higher education. Reworking the student departure puzzle, In J. M. Braxton
Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press; 127-156, 2000.
3. Yeshimebrat, Alemayehu, Dawit , Yismaw The Study of Police Intervention Factors Affecting
Female Studentsâ€™ Academic Achievement and Causes of Attrition in Higher Learning
Institutions of Ethiopia, 2009.
4. Kupermintz et al. Teacher effects as a measure of teacher effectiveness: construct validity
considerations in TVAAS. 43(2), 195-212, 2001.
5. Wintre M, Jaffe M. First-year studentsâ€™ adjustment to university life as a function of
relationships with parents. Journal of Adolescent Research; 15(1), 9-37, 2002.
6. Tinto V. Taking retention seriously: Rethinking the first year of college. NACADA Journal;
19(2), 5-9, 1999.
7. Cuseo J. Academic Advisement and Student Retention: Empirical Connections & Systematic
Intervention. 8(1), 27-38, 2003.
8. Abebayehu A. Problems of Gender Equity in Institutions of Higher Learning in Ethiopia.â€ In
Amare Asgedom et al., (eds), Quality Education In Ethiopia: Visions For 21st Century. Addis
Ababa: Institute for Educational Research; Addis Ababa University, 1998.
9. Lesure-Lester GE. Effects of coping styles on college persistence decisions among Latino
student in two-year colleges. Research, Theory, & Practice. Journal of College Student
Retention; 5(2), 11-22, 2003.
10. Tilahun.W. (2003). University Students Dropouts in Addis Ababa University. Addis Ababa
University; Unpublished Material, 2009.
11. Huffman T. Resistance theory and the trans-culturation hypothesis of college attrition and
persistence among culturally traditional American Indian students. Journal of American
Indian Education, 40(3), 1-23,2001.
12. Fitzpatric KM, Wright MP. Gender differences in medical school attrition rates, 1973-1992.
American womensâ€™association, 1995.
13. Emebete et al. Causes of Female University Studentsâ€™ Attrition: The Case of Some Selected
Universities. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2010.
14. Tierney WG. Power, Identity, and the Dilemma of College Student Departure. Reworking the
Student Departure Puzzle. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press;
15. Kuh GD, Love PG. A cultural perspective on student departure. Rethinking The Student
Departure Puzzle. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Knoxville: Vanderbilt University Press; 127 -156,
16. Hernandez JC. Understanding the retention of Latino college students. Journal of Student
Development; 41, 575-588, 2000.
17. Pancer S, Hunsberger B, Pratt M, Alisat S. Cognitive complexity of expectations and
adjustment to university in the first year. Journal of Adolescent Research; 15(1), 38-57, 2000.