HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS ASSOCIATED CERVICAL CANCER: A REVIEW

  • Pranav Kumar Prabhakar Lovely Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Lovely Professional University
  • Kirti .

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Globally, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer, and in India, it is the most common cancer in women. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is
the main cause of it. Although there are several methods for preventing cervical cancer, primary prevention by vaccination is the most effective option.
HPV vaccine is safe and effective. It is expensive and is not a replacement for periodic cervical screening procedures. In developing countries, the costeffectiveness
of
the
vaccine
and that of
effective
screening
program
with broader
coverage
is questionable.
Today,
HPV vaccine
with regular
cervical
cancer
screening
program
is the best possible tool
to
prevent
cervical cancer.
Keywords: Papilloma, Cervical, E6, E7, Cancer, Epithelium.

References

REFERENCES
1. Bosch FX, Lorincz A, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV. The causal
relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J Clin
Pathol 2002;55(4):244-65.
2. Parkin DM, Bray F. Chapter 2: The burden of HPV-related cancers.
Vaccine 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/11-25.
3. Malpica A, Matisic JP, Niekirk DV, Crum CP, Staerkel GA, Yamal JM,
et al. Kappa statistics to measure inter-rater and intra-rater agreement
for 1790 cervical biopsy specimens among twelve pathologists:
Qualitative histopathologic analysis and methodologic issues. Gynecol
Oncol 2005;993 Supply 1:S38-52.
4. Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S, Herrero R, Castellsagué X, Shah KV,
et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types
associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;348(6):518-27.
5. Kobayashi A, Miaskowski C, Wallhagen M, Smith-McCune K.
Recent developments in understanding the immune response to human
papilloma virus infection and cervical neoplasia. Oncol Nurs Forum
2000;27(4):643-51.
6. Moscicki AB. Human papillomavirus infection in adolescents. Pediatr
Clin North Am. 1999;46(4):783-807.
7. Reichman RC. Human papillomaviruses. In: Braunwald E, Fauci AS,
Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison’s Principle of
Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2001. p. 1118-20.
8. Burk RD, Kelly P, Feldman J, Bromberg J, Vermund SH, DeHovitz JA,
et al. Declining prevalence of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus
infection with age is independent of other risk factors. Sex Transm Dis
1996;23(4):333-41.
9. Kjaer SK, van den Brule AJ, Bock JE, Poll PA, Engholm G, Sherman ME.
Determinants for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in
1000 randomly chosen young Danish women with normal Pap smear:
Are there different risk profiles for oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV
types? Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1997;6(10):799-805.
10. de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H.
Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology 2004;324(1):17-27.
11. Schiffman M, Herrero R, Desalle R, Hildesheim A, Wacholder S,
Rodriguez AC, et al. The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus
types reflects viral evolution. Virology 2005;337(11):76-84.
12. Smith JS, Lindsay L, Hoots B, Keys J, Franceschi S, Winer R, et al.
Human papillomavirus type distribution in invasive cervical cancer
and high-grade cervical lesions: A meta-analysis update. Int J Cancer
2007;121(3):621-32.
13. Solomon D, Davey D, Kurman R, Moriarty A, O’Connor D, Prey M,
et al. The 2001 Bethesda System: Terminology for reporting results of
cervical cytology. JAMA 2002;287(16):2114-9.
14. Doorbar J. Molecular biology of human papillomavirus infection and
cervical cancer. Clin Sci (Lond) 2006;110(5):525-41.
15. Münger K, Basile JR, Duensing S, Eichten A, Gonzalez SL, Grace M,
et al. Biological activities and molecular targets of the human
papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein. Oncogene 2001;20(54):7888-98.
16. Mantovani F, Banks L. The human papillomavirus E6 protein and its
contribution to malignant progression. Oncogene 2001;20(54):7874-87.
17. Schiffman M, Castle PE. The promise of global cervical-cancer
prevention. N Engl J Med 2005;353(20):2101-4.
18. Burchell AN, Winer RL, de Sanjosé S, Franco EL. Chapter 6:
Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of genital HPV infection.
Vaccine 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/52-61.
19. Roberts JN, Buck CB, Thompson CD, Kines R, Bernardo M,
Choyke PL, et al. Genital transmission of HPV in a mouse model is
potentiated by nonoxynol-9 and inhibited by carrageenan. Nat Med
2007;13(7):857-61.
20. Baseman JG, Koutsky LA. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus
infections. J Clin Virol 2005;32 Suppl 1:S16-24.
21. Davey DD, Neal MH, Wilbur DC, Colgan TJ, Styer PE, Mody DR.
Bethesda 2001 implementation and reporting rates: 2003 practices of
participants in the College of American pathologists inter-laboratory
comparison program in cervicovaginal cytology. Arch Pathol Lab Med
2004;128:1224-9.
22. Pagliusi SR, Dillner J, Pawlita M, Quint WG, Wheeler CM,
Ferguson M. Chapter 23: International Standard reagents for
harmonization of HPV serology and DNA assays – an update. Vaccine
2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/193-200.
23. Mendez F, Munoz N, Posso H, Molano M, Moreno V, van den Brule AJ,
et al. Cervical coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types and
possible implications for the prevention of cervical cancer by HPV
vaccines. J Infect Dis 2005;192(7):1158-65.
24. Plummer M, Schiffman M, Castle PE, Maucort-Boulch D, Wheeler CM;
ALTS Group. A 2-year prospective study of human papillomavirus
persistence among women with a cytological diagnosis of atypical
squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous
intraepithelial lesion. J Infect Dis 2007;195(11):1582-9.
25. Herrero R, Castle PE, Schiffman M, Bratti MC, Hildesheim A,
Morales J, et al. Epidemiologic profile of type-specific human
papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia in Guanacaste, Costa
Rica. J Infect Dis 2005;191(11):1796-807.
26. Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV, de Sanjose S,
16
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 9, Issue 3, 2016, 14-17
Kirti and Prabhakar
et al. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and
cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med 2002;346(15):1105-12.
27. Stanley M. Immune responses to human papillomavirus. Vaccine
2006;24 Suppl 1:S16-22.
28. Castle PE, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Rodriguez AC,
Bratti MC, et al. A prospective study of age trends in cervical human
papillomavirus acquisition and persistence in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.
J Infect Dis 2005;191(11):1808-16.
29. Bulkmans NW, Berkhof J, Bulk S, Bleeker MC, van Kemenade FJ,
Rozendaal L, et al. High-risk HPV type-specific clearance rates in
cervical screening. Br J Cancer 2007;96(9):1419-24.
30. Schiffman M, Kjaer SK. Chapter 2: Natural history of anogenital
human papillomavirus infection and neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst
Monogr 2003;(31):14-9.
31. Campion MJ, McCance DJ, Cuzick J, Singer A. Progressive potential
of mild cervical atypia: Prospective cytological, colposcopic, and
virological study. Lancet 1986;2(8501):237-40.
32. Cuzick J, Terry G, Ho L, Hollingworth T, Anderson M. Human
papillomavirus type 16 in cervical smears as predictor of
high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [corrected]. Lancet
1992;339(8799):959-60.
33. Cuzick J, Terry G, Ho L, Hollingworth T, Anderson M. Type-specific
human papillomavirus DNA in abnormal smears as a predictor
of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Cancer
1994;69(1):167-71.
34. Cuzick J, Szarewski A, Terry G, Ho L, Hanby A, Maddox P, et al.
Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening. Lancet
1995;345(8964):1533-6.
35. Cuzick J, Sasieni P, Davies P, Adams J, Normand C, Frater A, et al.
A systematic review of the role of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing
within a cervical screening programme: Summary and conclusions. Br J
Cancer 2000;83(5):561-5.
36. Ratnam S, Franco EL, Ferenczy A. Human papillomavirus testing for
primary screening of cervical cancer precursors. Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev 2000;9(9):945-51.
37. Nobbenhuis MA, Walboomers JM, Helmerhorst TJ, Rozendaal L,
Remmink AJ, Risse EK, et al. Relation of human papillomavirus status
to cervical lesions and consequences for cervical-cancer screening: A
prospective study. Lancet 1999;354(172):20-5.
38. Manos MM, Kinney WK, Hurley LB, Sherman ME, Shieh-Ngai J,
Kurman RJ, et al. Identifying women with cervical neoplasia: Using
human papillomavirus DNA testing for equivocal Papanicolaou results.
JAMA 1999;281(17):1605-10.
39. Denise Zielinski G, Snijders PJ, Rozendaal L, Voorhorst FJ, Runsink AP,
de Schipper FA, et al. High-risk HPV testing in women with borderline
and mild dyskaryosis: Long-term follow-up data and clinical relevance.
J Pathol 2001;195(3):300-6.
40. Solomon D, Schiffman M, Tarone R. Comparison of three management
strategies for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined
significance: Baseline results from a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer
Inst 2001;93(4):293-9.
41. Clavel C, Masure M, Bory JP, Putaud I, Mangeonjean C, Lorenzato M,
et al. Hybrid Capture II-based human papillomavirus detection,
a sensitive test to detect in routine high-grade cervical lesions:
A preliminary study on 1518 women. Br J Cancer 1999;80(9):1306-11.
42. Schneider A, Hoyer H, Lotz B, Leistritza S, Kühne-Heid R, Nindl I,
et al. Screening for high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and
cancer by testing for high-risk HPV, routine cytology or colposcopy. Int
J Cancer 2000;89(6):529-34.
43. Schiffman M, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Sherman ME, Bratti M,
Wacholder S, et al. HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening:
Results from women in a high-risk province of Costa Rica. JAMA
2000;283(1):87-93.
44. Wright TC, Denny L, Kuhn L, Pollack A, Lorincz A. HPV DNA testing
of self-collected vaginal samples compared with cytologic screening to
detect cervical cancer. JAMA 2000;283(1):81-6.
45. Miller SA, Dykes DD, Polesky HF. A simple salting out procedure
for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res
1988;16(3):1215.
46. Aggarwal R, Gupta S, Nijhawan R, Suri V, Kaur A, Bhasin V, et al.
Prevalence of high--risk human papillomavirus infections in women
with benign cervical cytology: A hospital based study from North India.
Indian J Cancer 2006;43(3):110-6.
47. Contorni M, Leoncini P. Typing of human papillomavirus DNAs by
restriction endonuclease mapping of the PCR products. J Virol Methods
1993;41(1):29-36.
48. Oh YL, Shin KJ, Han J, Kim DS. Significance of high-risk human
papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction in primary
cervical cancer screening. Cytopathology 2001;12(2):75-83.
49. Miller CS, Zeuss MS, White DK. Detection of HPV DNA in oral
carcinoma using polymerase chain reaction together with in situ
hybridization. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;77(5):480-6.
Statistics
295 Views | 394 Downloads
How to Cite
Prabhakar, P. K., and K. . “HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS ASSOCIATED CERVICAL CANCER: A REVIEW”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 9, no. 3, May 2016, pp. 14-17, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/10865.
Section
Review Article(s)