EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF Vitex negundo L. ON ACETIC ACID INDUCED COLITIS IN ALBINO RATS.
Objective- As the leaves of Vitex negundo L. possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this study has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of Vitex negundo L. in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to find its probable mechanism of action including its antioxidant potential.
Methods-The extract of Vitex negundo L. was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using OECD guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups (n=5). Group A and B received 3% gum acacia. Group C and D received ethanolic extract of Vitex negundo L. (EEVN) 500 mg/kg BW and 5-aminosalisylic acid (5-ASA) 100 mg /kg BW respectively.Â Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 hour of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum.
Results- Vitex negundo L. showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (p<0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B.
Conclusion- The ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo L. showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.
Key words: Colitis, Vitex negundo L., antioxidant.
Shrikant V Joshi, Bhavin A Vyas, Payal D Shah, Dinesh R Shah, Shailesh A Shah, Tejal R Gandhi. Protective effect of aqueous extract of Oroxylum indicum Linn. (Root bark) against DNBS-induced colitis in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2011; 43(6):656-61.
Fiocchi C. Inflammatory bowel disease: Etiology and pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 1998; 115:182-205.
Papadakis KA, Targan SR. Current theories on the cause of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1999; 28: 283-96.
Lalit Kanodia, Mondita Borgohain, Swranamoni Das. Effect of fruit extract of Fragaria vesca L. on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2011; 43(1):18-21
Nosalâ€™ova V, Cerna S, Bauer V. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on colitis induced by acetic acid in rats. Gen Pharmacol 2000; 35:77-81.
Juri Bora Borgohain & Lakhinandan Borgohain, Bonsaak Aru Iyar Byobohar, 2010, Banalata, Dibrugarh, 1 ed, pp-52.
Mukundam Borah, Shagufa Ahmed, Swarnamoni Das. A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Vitex negundo L., Fragaria vesca L., Terminalia arjuna and Citrus maxima. Asian J Pharm Biol Res. 2012; 2(3): 183-87.
Vishal R Tandon. Medicinal uses and biological activities of Vitex negundo. Natural Product Radiance. 2005; 4 (3) : 162-65.
Bimala Patawari, A glossary of medicinal plants of Assam & Meghalaya, 1992, 1st ed, p-136.
Tiwari OP, Tripathi YB. Antioxidant properties of different fractions of Vitex negundo. Food Chem 2007; 100: 1170-76.
Jignesh Patel, Samir Shah, Shrikalp Deshpande, Gaurang Shah. Evaluation of the antiasthmatic activity of leaves of Vitex negundo. Asian J pharm Clin Res.2009; 2(1):81-86.
Clark WE. Extracta Liquida Pharmaceutical Formulations. In: Le G, editors. The Chemist and Druggist Book. 11th ed. London: Essex Street Strand; 1950. p.183.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. France: OECD Publishing; Section 4, Health Effects: Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and-Down Procedure. 2006. 1-27.
Murat Z, Mustafa K, Erhan A, Ozgur F, Murat A, GÃ¶khan Ä°, et al. The comparative effects of calcium channel blockers in an experimental colitis model in rats. Turk J Gastroenterol 2004; 15:243-49.
Morris GP, Beck PL, Herrigge MS, Depew WT, Szewcdzuk MR, Wallace JL. Hapten induced model of chronic inflammation and ulceration in the rat colon. Gastroenterology 1989; 96 :795-803.
Ko JK, Lam FY, Cheung AP. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J Gastroenterol 2005; 11:5787-94.
Wallace JL, Keenan CM. An orally active inhibitor of leukotriene synthesis accelerates healing in a rat model of colitis. Am J Physiol 1990; 258:G527-34.
Krawisz JE, Sharon P, Stenson WF. Qualitative assay for acute intestinal inflammation based on myeloperoxidase activity. Gastroenterology 1984; 87:1344-50.
Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method, Clin Chim Acta, 90(1) (1978) 37.
Beers RF Jr, Sizer IW. A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem 1952; 195:133-40.
Kakkar, P, Das B, and Viswanathan P.N. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 1984; 21(2): 130-32.
Nakhai LA, Mohammadirad A, Yasa N, Minaie B, Nikfar S, Ghazanfari G et al. Benefits of Zataria multiflora Boiss in experimental model of mouse inflammatory bowel disease. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007; 4:43-50.
Swarnamoni Das, Lalit Kanodia. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Moringa olifera lam. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012; 5(3):110-14.
MacPherson B, Pfeiffer CJ. Experimental colitis. Digestion 1976; 14:424-52.
Grisham MB, Granger DN. Neutrophil-mediated mucosal injury: Role of reactive oxygen metabolites. Dig Dis Sci 1988; 33:6-15.
Koutroubakis IE, Malliaraki N, Dimoulios PD, Karmiris K, Castanas E, Kouroumalis EA. Decreased total and corrected antioxidant capacity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 2004; 49:1433-37.
Evans WC. Trease and Evans pharmacognosy. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Limited; 2002: 214â€“52.
Lukacinova A, Mojzis J, Benacka R, Keller J, Maguth T, Kurila P et al. Preventive Effects of Flavonoids on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. Acta Vet 2008; 77: 175â€“82.
Liby KT, Yore MM, Sporn MB. Triterpenoids and rexinoids as multifunctional agents for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Nature Reviews 2007 May; 7: 357â€“69.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.