ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. ON ESCHERICHIA COLI AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of leaves of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (EECM) on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: The ethanolic extract of leaves of Citrus maxima (Burm.)Merr.(EECM) was prepared by percolation method. Pathological isolates Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital. Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the Kirby-Bauer method. The whatman-1 filter paper discs of 6mm sizes impregnated with the plant extract were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar plates seeded with bacterial cultures of 0.5 Mc Farland standards. The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones after incubating the plates at 370c for 24 hours. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EECM for the selected pathogens were determined by broth macrodilution method. Results: Maximum zone of inhibition in antibacterial susceptibility test was shown by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MIC value of the extract for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.312mg/ml) was found to be lower than Escherichia coli but MBC value (1.25mg/ml) was found to be the same for both the bacteria. Conclusion: The plant extract of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, MIC, MBC, Citrus maxima.
2. Pawar NK and Arumugam N. Leaf extract of Centratherum punctatum exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti proliferative properties. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011; 4(3): 71-76.
3. Gautam K and Kumar P. Extraction and pharmacological evaluation of some extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012; 4 (2):132-37.
4. Kabra AO, Bairagi GB, Mahamuni AS and Wanare RS. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of the Peels of Citrus medica L. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2012; 3 (1): 34-6.
5. Iwu MW, Duncan AR, Okunji CO: New antimicrobials of plant origin. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. Alexandria: ASHS Press; 1999. p.457-62.
6. Sen SK, Haldar PK, Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Saha P, Bala A, et al: Antitumor activity of citrus maxima (Burm.)Merr. leaves in Ehrlichâ€™s ascites carcinoma cell-treated mice. ISRN Endocrinology 2011(2011), Article ID 869273:1-7.
7. Bhandurge P, Rajarajeshwari N, Alagawadi KR, Agrawal S: Antidiabetic and hyperlipaemic effects of Citrus Maxima Linn fruits on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res 2010; 2(2):273-78.
8. Oyedepo T. A. Antioxidant potential of Citrus maxima fruit juice in rats. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci 2012; 1(5):122-26.
9. Nairn JG. Solutions, emulsions, suspensions and extracts. In: Gennaro A, Marderosian AD, Hanson GR, Medwick T, Popovich NG, Schnarre RL, Schwartz JB, White HS, editors. Remington: the science and practice of pharmacy.20th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams andWilkins.2000:721-52.
10. Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A Review. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia 2011; 1(1): 98-106.
11. Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherrie JC, Tuck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized disc diffusion method. Am J Clin Path 1966; 45: 493-96.
12. Egharevba, Henry Omoregie; Ocheme Owochoi Emmmanuel; Ugbabe Grace; Abdullahi, Makailu Sabo; Iliya Ibrahim et al. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Studies of Methanol, Ethyl Acetate and Hexane Extracts of Vitex doniana, Sweet. (Stem Bark and Leaf)., Nature and science 2010;8(8):177-85.
13. Maji S, Dandapat P, Ojha D, Maity C, Halder SK, Das PK et al. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potentialities Of Different Solvent Extracts Of Ethnomedicinal Plants Against Clinically Isolated Human Pathogens. J Phytol 2010; 2(4): 57â€“64
14. Giwa OE, Onileke FO, Adesina IA and Adebote VT. Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Properties Of Seed And Pulp Of Monkey Cola (Cola Millenii) On Some Selected Clinical And Food Borne Isolate. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology [IJABPT] 2012; 3(3):390-400.
15. Anjum F, Mir A. Susceptibility pattern of pseudomonas aeruginosa against various antibiotics. Afr J Microbiol Res 2010; 4 (10): 1005-12.
16. Panda S and Bandyopadhyay PK. Chemical information from GC-MS studies of methanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and Datura metel and their antibacterial activity against isolated pseudomonas aeruginosa (pb112) strain. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013;4(1): 909 â€“ 15.
17. Nwaogu LA, Alisi CS, Ibegbulem CO, Igwe CU. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Landolphia owariensis leaf. Afr J Biotechnol 2007; 6 (7): 890-93.
18. Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2005; 26: 343â€“56.
19. Firas A, Hassan F. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008; 9(2):154-59.
20. Arabski M, Wegierek-Ciuk A, Czerwonka G, Lankoff A, Kaca W. Effects of Saponins against Clinical E. coli Strains and Eukaryotic Cell Line. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2012: 286216. 6 pages. doi:10.1155/2012 286216
21. Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1999;12: 564â€“82.
22. Ricardo SA, Luis AP, Joel LA, Blanca AAG, Noemi WT. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2011:536139. 6 pages. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep127.
23. Sen SK, Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Haldar PK, Panda SP and Bhattacharya S. Exploration of in vivo antioxidant potential of Citrus maxima leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Der Pharmacia Sinica 2011;2(3): 156-63.
24. Narayana KR, Reddy MS, Chaluvadi MR, Krishna DR. Bioflavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian J pharmacol 2001; 33:2-16.
25. Handral HK, Pandith A, Shruthi SD. A review on Murraya koenigii: Multipotential medicinal plant. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012; 5(4):5-14.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.