• Ayana Joy Department of Physiology, Little Flower Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Angamaly, Kerala, India.
  • Sailesh Sai Kumar Department of Physiology, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Archana R Department of Physiology, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Mukkadan J K 3Department of Research, Little Flower Medical Research Centre, Angamaly, Kerala, India


 Objective: The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of pre-examination stress on olfactory sensitivity in college students.

Methods: A total of 80 apparently healthy males and females were included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Blast injection method was used to measure the olfactory sensitivity.

Result: In the present study, we have observed decrease in the olfactory sensitivity in both males and females during pre-examination stress. However, it is not statistically significant.

Conclusion: We recommend further detailed studies for better understanding the links between stress and olfaction.


Keywords: Olfaction, Stress, Examination, Students.

Author Biography

Ayana Joy, Department of Physiology, Little Flower Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Angamaly, Kerala, India.
pl consider


1. Liberles SD. Mammalian pheromones. Annu Rev Physiol 2014;76:151-75.
2. Brennan PA. Pheromones and mammalian behavior. In: Menini A, editor. The Neurobiology of Olfaction. Boca Raton (FL): Frontiers in Neuroscience; 2010.
3. Brechbühl J, Klaey M, Broillet MC. Grueneberg ganglion cells mediate alarm pheromone detection in mice. Science 2008;321(5892):1092-5.
4. Fleischer J, Breer H. The Grueneberg ganglion: A novel sensory system in the nose. Histol Histopathol 2010;25(7):909-15.
5. Sarafoleanu C, Mella C, Georgescu M, Perederco C. The importance of the olfactory sense in the human behavior and evolution. J Med Life 2009;2(2):196-8.
6. Hou G, Tian R, Li J, Yuan TF. Chronic stress and Parkinson’s disease. CNS Neurosci Ther 2014;20(1):1-2.
7. Atanasova B, Graux J, El Hage W, Hommet C, Camus V, Belzung C. Olfaction: A potential cognitive marker of psychiatric disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2008;32(7):1315-25.
8. Qureshi F, Alam J, Khan MA, Sheraz G. Effect of examination stress on blood cell parameters of students in a Pakistani medical college. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2002;14(1):20-2.
9. Heins M, Fahey SN, Leiden LI. Perceived stress in medical, law, and graduate students. J Med Educ 1984;59(3):169-79.
10. Yuan TF, Hou G, Arias-Carrion O. Chronic stress impacts on olfactory system. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2015;14(4):486-91.
11. Elsberg CA, Levy I. The sense of smell. I. A new and simple method of quantitative olfactometry. Bull Neurol Inst N Y 1935;4:5-19.
12. Joy A, Sailesh KS, Mukkadan JK. Comparison of olfactory sensitivity for black pepper, lemon, camphor and jasmine in healthy females of Kerala, India. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2016;7(5):113-5.
13. Clark EJ, Rieker PP. Gender differences in relationships and stress of medical and law students. J Med Educ 1986;61(1):32-40.
14. Mythri H, Saxena S, Ananda SR, Chandu GN. Perceived sources of stress among bioallied science students of South India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(8):335-9.
15. Chrousos GP, Gold PW. The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis. JAMA 1992;267(9):1244-52.
16. Carrasco GA, Van de Kar LD. Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress. Eur J Pharmacol 2003;463(1-3):235-72.
17. de Kloet ER, Joëls M, Holsboer F. Stress and the brain: From adaptation to disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005;6(6):463-75.
18. Escada PA, Lima C, da Silva JM. The human olfactory mucosa. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2009;266(11):1675-80.
19. Doty RL, Perl DP, Steele JC, Chen KM, Pierce JD Jr, Reyes P, et al. Olfactory dysfunction in three neurodegenerative diseases. Geriatrics 1991;46 Suppl 1:47-51.
20. Doty RL. The olfactory system and its disorders. Semin Neurol 2009;29(1):74-81.
21. Graves AB, Bowen JD, Rajaram L, McCormick WC, McCurry SM, Schellenberg GD, et al. Impaired olfaction as a marker for cognitive decline: Interaction with apolipoprotein E epsilon4 status. Neurology 1999;53(7):1480-7.
22. Hansen A, Finger TE. Is TrpM5 a reliable marker for chemosensory cells? Multiple types of microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium of mice. BMC Neurosci 2008;9:115.
23. Raman B, Ito I, Stopfer M. Bilateral olfaction: Two is better than one for navigation. Genome Biol 2008;9(3):212.
24. Cabanac M. Physiological role of pleasure. Science 1971;173(4002):1103-7.
25. Chaudhary B, Agarwal S, Bist R. Curcumin amends oxidative stress and antioxidants status in olfactory lobes, cerebrum, hypothalamus-hippocampus, cerebellum and pons-medulla of mice acutely intoxicated with lindane. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8(7):244-8.
26. Barsalou LW. Grounded cognition. Annu Rev Psychol 2001;59:617-45.
27. Sugawara Y, Shigetho A, Yoneda M, Tuchiya T, Matumura T, Hirano M. Relationship between mood change, odour and its physiological effects in humans while inhaling the fragrances of essential oils as well as linalool and its enantiomers. Molecules 2013;18(3):3312-38.
28. Aggleton JP, Waskett L. The ability of odours to serve as state-dependent cues for real-world memories: Can Viking smells aid the recall of Viking experiences? Br J Psychol 1999;90(1):1-7.
29. Herz RS. Emotion experienced during encoding enhances odor retrieval cue effectiveness. Am J Psychol 1997;110(4):489-505.
30. Buck LB. Smell and taste: The chemical senses. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessel TM, editors. Principles of Neural Science. Vol. 4. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2000. p. 625-47.
446 Views | 381 Downloads
How to Cite
Joy, A., S. S. Kumar, A. R, and M. J K. “EFFECT OF PRE EXAMINATION STRESS ON OLFACTORY SENSITIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENTS.”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 6, June 2017, pp. 393-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i6.17979.
Original Article(s)