ASSESSMENT OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN CHILDREN OF JAIPUR DISTRICT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA
Objective: The objective of the present study was carried out to explore the potential association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and severity of dental fluorosis (DF) in the children.
Methods: The study of dental fluorosis (DF) in the children (6-14 years old) was conducted in the two blocks (a) Jamwaramgarh block ;Heerawala, Palera ,Nayabas, Saipur and Birasana, (b) Amber block; Jugalpura, Chitanukalan, Sunder ka bas, Peelwa and Sirsali of Jaipur district, Rajasthan, India of the study villages. Total 150, children were surveyed. The role of fluoride (F) levels in drinking water in the etiology of dental fluorosis (DF) and the cases of dental fluorosis (DF) in both dentitions and teeth were also assessed using DEAN'S classification. The fluoride (F) concentration in source of drinking water was estimated by fluoride (F) ion specific electrode (Thermo Scientific Orion Star A329, USA).
Results: The F concentration in (Tube well and Hand pump) water ranges from 0.7 to 15.0 parts per million (ppm) in Jamwaramgarh block and 1.40 to 5. 10 parts per million (ppm) in Amber block. Prevalence of dental fluorosis (DF) 27 (36%) in Jamwaramgar block and 26 (34.66%) in Amber block out of 75 children were examined in each block. Significantly increase in levels of F in drinking water is positively correlated with dental fluorosis.
Conclusion: This study finding has shown the relation of dental fluorosis (DF) to high fluoride (F) levels in drinking water sources. A higher fluoride (F) levels in source of drinking water is a major risk factor for dental fluorosis. In view of the severity of the problem the intake of calcium rich foods and defluoridation techniques may help reducing risk of dental fluorosis (DF) in the children.
2. Wedepohl KH. Hand Book of Geochemistry. Vol. 2. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlage; 1974. p. 9K-1.
3. Susheela AK, Kharb P. Aortic calcification in chronic fluoride poisoning: Biochemical and electronmicroscopic evidence. Exp Mol Pathol 1990;53(1):72-80.
4. Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AV. Alleviatory effects of (Emblica Officinalis G). As a food supplement in fluoride induced hyperlipemia and oxidative stress. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(1):404-8.
5. Environmental Protection Agency. Public Health Global for Fluoride in Drinking Water, Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Section Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. California: Environmental Protection Agency; 1997.
6. Deshpande RR, Kachare P, Sharangpani G, Varghese VK, Bahulkar NS. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of two commercially available dentifrices (fluoridated and herbal) against salivary microflora. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(6):72-4.
7. Bo Z, Mei H, Yongsheng Z, Xueyu L, Xuelin Z, Jun D. Distribution and risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water in the west plain region of Jilin province, China. Environ Geochem Health 2003;25(4):421-31.
8. Susheela AK. Fluorosis: Indian Scenario: A Treatise on Fluorosis. New Delhi, India: Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation; 2001.
9. Nand RS. Observation of fluoride intake in Lucknow. J Indian Dent Assoc 1972;44:177-81.
10. Teotia SP, Teotia M. Endemic fluorosis in India: A challenging national health problem. J Assoc Physicians India 1984;32(4):347-52.
11. Dissendorf M. Tooth decay not related to fluoride intake from water. Nature 1986;322:125-9.
12. Harikumar R, Khandare AL, Bhramam GN, Venkiah C, Reddy G, Sivakumar B. Assessment of current status of fluorosis in North- Western districts of Tamil Nadu, using community index for dental fluorosis. J Hum Ecol 2007;21(1):27-32.
13. Ray SK, Ghosh S, Nagchaudhuri J, Tiwari IC, Kaur P. Prevalence of fluorosis in rural community near Varanasi. Fluoride 1981;14(2):86-90.
14. Choubsia SL, Sompura K, Bhatt SK, Choubisa DK, Pandya H, Joshi SC, et.al. Prevalence of fluorosis in some villages of Dungarpur district of Rajasthan. Indian J Environ Health 1996;38(2):119-26.
15. Choubisa SL. Fluoride distribution and fluorosis in some villages of
Banswara district of Rajasthan. Indian J Environ Health 1997;39:281-8.
16. Dean HT, Dixon R, Cohen C. Mottled enamel in Texas. Public Health Rep 1935;50:424-42.
17. Dean HT, Elvolve E. Studies on minimal threshold of the dental sign of chronic endemic fluorosis (mottled enamel). Public Health Rep 1935;50:1719-29.
18. Dean HT. Chronic endemic dental fluorosis (mottled enamel). JAMA 1936;107:1269-72.
19. Dean HT, Elvove E. Some epidemiological aspects of chronic endemic dental fluorosis. Am J Public Health Nations Health 1936;26(6):567-75.
20. Dean HT, Elvolve E. Mottled enamel in South Dakota. Public Health Rep 1939;54:212-28.
21. Krishnamachari KA, Krishnaswamy K. Genu valgum and osteoporosis in an area of endemic fluorosis. Lancet 1973;2(7834):877-9.
22. Yadav JP, Lata S, Kataria SK, Kumar S. Fluoride distribution in groundwater and survey of dental fluorosis among school children in the villages of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India. Environ Geochem Health 2009;31(4):431-8.
23. Suthar S, Garg VK, Jangir S, Kaur S, Goswami N, Singh S. Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Northern Rajasthan, India. Environ Monit Assess 2008;145(1-3):1-6.
24. Dean HT. The Investigation of physiological effects by the epidemiological method. In: Moulton FR, editor. Fluorine and Dental Health. Vol. 19. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science; 1942. p. 23-31.
25. Hall LL, Smith FA, De Lopez OH, Gardner DE. Direct potentiometric determination of total ionic fluoride in biological fluids. Clin Chem 1972;18(12):1455-8.
26. WHO. Guideline for Drinking-Water Quality. 3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2004. p. 516.
27. Choubisa SL. Endemic fluorosis in Southern Rajasthan, India. Fluoride 2001;34(1):61-70.
28. Shah B, Pandya D, Patel H, Ayalew A, Shah A. Zeolitic composites from agricultural detritus for pollution remedy: A review. J Crit Rev 2016;3(3):41-9.
29. Griffin SO, BeltrÃ¡n ED, Lockwood SA, Barker LK. Esthetically objectionable fluorosis attributable to water fluoridation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002;30(3):199-209.
30. Al-Shammery AR, Guile EE, Backly ME. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J 1997;9(2):58-61.
31. Ishii T, Suckling G. The severity of dental fluorosis in children exposed to water with a high fluoride content for various periods of time. J Dent Res 1991;70(6):952-6.
32. Warren JJ, Levy SM, Kanellis MJ. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in the primary dentition. J Public Health Dent 2001;61(2):87-91.
33. Venkaleswarla P, Rao DN, Rao KR. Studies in endemic fluorosis in Vishakhapatanam and suburban areas. Indian J Med Res 1952;40(4):353-62.
34. Subbareddy VV, Tewari A. Enamel mottling at different levels of fluoride in drinking water: In an endemic area. J Indian Dent Assoc 1985;57(6):205-12.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.