• Linda H Al-ghazali Department of Clinical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Karbala, Iraq. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9449-3421
  • Rabab Omran Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq




Streptomycetes sp, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphate source



 Objectives: This paper aimed to optimize some essential nutritional components (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate) of fermentation medium necessary for the production of antibacterial metabolites from Streptomyces sp.

Materials and Methods: Streptomyces sp. LH9 previously isolated from desert soil in Karbala Province, Iraq. This strain produced antibiotic against 4 pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalagtiae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For optimizing, the essential nutritional requirements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate in fermentation media different concentrations of these sources were used to improve the antibacterial metabolite production.

Results: All the studied nutritional parameters were had impacts on the antibacterial metabolite production from Streptomyces sp. LH9. The actinobacterial strain produced a highest antibiotic metabolites when was grown in the fermentation medium supplemented with 2% dextrose (as a sole carbon source), 0.05% peptone (as a sole nitrogen source), and 0.05% K2HPO4 at pH 7 and incubated under optimal conditions; at 30°C with 250 rpm (revolutions/min) agitation for 7 days.

Conclusion: Streptomyces sp. LH9 was a good producer for antibacterial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which required simple nutritional supplements in the fermentation medium. Furthermore, could be utilized the industrial waste for improving the production in the most economic manner.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Linda H Al-ghazali, Department of Clinical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Karbala, Iraq.

biology deparament , biotechnology-genetic engineering


Dancer SJ. How antibiotics can make us sick: The less obvious adverse effects of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Lancet Infect Dis 2004;4(10):611-9.

Amador ML, Jimeno J, Paz-Ares L, Cortes-Funes H, Hidalgo M. Progress in the development and acquisition of anticancer agents from marine sources. Ann Oncol 2003;14(11):1607-15.

Imada C. Enzyme inhibitors and other bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2005;87(1):59-63.

Kuster HJ. Uber die bildung von huminstoffen durch streptomyceten. Landwirtsch Forsch 1968;21:48-61.

Hopwood DA. Streptomyces in Nature and Medicine: The Antibiotic Makers. USA: Oxford University Press; 2007.

Baltz RH. Marcel faber roundtable: Is our antibiotic pipeline unproductive because of starvation, constipation or lack of inspiration? J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2006;33(7):507-13.

Miyadoh S. Research on antibiotic screening in Japan over the last decade: A producing microorganisms approach. Actinomycetologica 1993;9:100-6.

Thumar JT, Dhulia K, Singh SP. Isolation and partial purification of an antimicrobial agent from halotolerant alkaliphilic Streptomyces aburaviensis strain Kut-8. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;26:2081-7.

Gao H, Liu M, Liu J, Dai H, Zhou X, Liu X, et al. Medium optimization for the production of avermectin B1a by Streptomyces avermitilis 14-12A using response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol 2009;100(17):4012-6.

Jia B, Jin ZH, Mei LH. Medium optimization based on statistical methodologies for pristinamycins production by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2008;144:133-43.

Lin J, Bai L, Deng Z, Zhong JJ. Effect of ammonium in medium on ansamitocin P-3 production by Actinosynnema pretiosum. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 2010;15:119-25.

Ruiz B, Chávez A, Forero A, García-Huante Y, Romero A, Sánchez M, et al. Production of microbial secondary metabolites: Regulation by the carbon source. Crit Rev Microbiol 2010;36(2):146-67.

Sánchez S, Chávez A, Forero A, García-Huante Y, Romero A, Sánchez M, et al. Carbon source regulation of antibiotic production. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2010;63(8):442-59.

Wang X, Huang L, Kang Z, Buchenauer H, Gao X. Optimization of the fermentation process of actinomycete strain hhs.015. J Biomed Biotechnol 2010;2010:141876. Doi: 10.1155/2010/141876

Kuester E, Williams ST. Selection of media for isolation of streptomycetes. Nature 1964;202:928-9.

Kämpfer P. Order XIV. Streptomycetales ord. nov. In: Goodfellow M, Kampfer P, Busse HJ, Trujillo ME, Suzuki K, Ludwig W, editors. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2012. p. 1446-806.

Gesheva V, Ivanova V, Gesheva R. Effects of nutrients on the production of AK-111-81 macrolide antibiotic by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Microbiol Res 2005;160(3):243-8.

Karthick L, Kumar KG, Bhaskara RA. The diversity of marine actinomycetes from nicobar marine sediments and its antifungal activity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2:199-203.

Anansiriwattana W, Tanasupawat S, Amnuoypol S, Suwanborirux K. Identification and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from soils in samed Island and geldamycin from strain PC4-3. Thai J Pharm Sci 2006;30:49-56.

Shahrokhi S, Bonjar GH, Saadoun I. Biological control of potato isolate of Rhizoctonia solani by Streptomyces olivaceus strain 115. Biotechnology 2005;4:132-8.

Kavanagh F. Analytical Microbiology. Vol. 2. New York: Ahead Press; 1972.

Jonsbu E, McIntyre M, Nielsen J. The influence of carbon sources and morphology on nystatin production by Streptomyces noursei. J Biotechnol 2002;95(2):133-44.

Shapiro S, Vining LC. Nitrogen metabolism and chloramphenicol production in Streptomyces venezuelae. Can J Microbiol 1983;29(12):1706-14.

Hassan M, El-Naggar M, Said W. Physiological factors affecting the production of an antimicrobial substance by Streptomyces violatus in batch culture. Egypt J Biol 2001;3:1-10.

Omran R, Kadhem MF. Production, purification, and characterization of bioactive metabolites produced from rare actinobacteria Pseudonocardia alni. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:264-72.

Pandey A, Shukla A, Majumdar SK. Utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources by Streptomyces kanamyceticus M 27 for the production of an antibacterial antibiotic. Afr J Biotechnol 2005;4:909-10.

Sharon SF, Daniel RR, Shenbagarathai R. Optimization of antibiotic productionby marineactinomycetes Streptomyces sp. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:506-10.

Oskay M. Effects of some environmental conditions on biomass and antimicrobial metabolite production by Streptomyces sp. KGG32. Int J Agric Biol 2011;13:317-24.

Ababutain IM, Abdul-Aziz ZK, Al-Meshhen NA. Optimization of environmental and nutritional conditions to improve growth and antibiotic productions by Streptomyces sp. Int Res J Microbiol 2013;4:179-87.

Majumdar MK, Majumdar SK. Effects of minerals on neomycin production by streptomyces fradiae. Appl Microbiol 1965;13:190-3.

Narayana KJ, Vijayalakshmi M. Optimization of antimicrobial metabolite production by Streptomyces albidoflavus. Res J Pharm 2008;2:4-7.

Raytapadar S, Paul AK. Production of an antifungal antibiotic by Streptomyces aburaviensis 1DA-28. Microbiol Res 2001;155(4):315-23.

Martin JF. Control of antibiotic synthesis by phosphate. Adv Biochem Eng 1977;6:105-27.

Martin JF. Phosphate regulation of gene expression of candicidin biosynthesis. In: Schlessinger D, editor. Microbiology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1976. p. 548-52.

Liu CM, McDaniel LE, Schaffner CP. Studies on candicidin biogenesis. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1972;25(2):116-21.



How to Cite

Al-ghazali, L. H., and R. Omran. “OPTIMIZATION OF MEDIUM COMPOSITION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL METABOLITE PRODUCTION FROM STREPTOMYCES SP”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, no. 9, Sept. 2017, pp. 381-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19813.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)