Amanatie Amanatie, Jumina Jumina, Mustofa Mustofa, Hanafi M, La Ode Kadidae, Sahidin I


Objective: The purpose of this research is to synthesize 2-hydroxyxanthone from xanthone and to evaluate its antiplasmodial activity.

Methods: The synthesis of 2-hydroxyxanthone followed the sequence of these synthetic stages, namely: 2-nitroxanthone, 2-aminoxanthone, and 2-hydroxyxanthone. The products were separated by chromatography methods including thin layer chromatography and vacuum liquid chromatography. Compound structures of the isolated products were determined based on their infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. To support these findings, the spectra were also matched to the corresponding data from literatures. The biological properties of the synthetic compound were evaluated toward Plasmodium falciparum 3D7.

Results: 2-nitroxanthone was obtained as a brownish-yellow crystal in 69.00% yield with Madhya Pradesh of 181°C. Reduction of 2-nitroxanthone using SnCl2.2H2O/hydrogen chloride produced 2-aminoxanthone as a pale-yellow solid in 60.60% yield. Finally, the desired 2-hydroxyxanthone was achieved by initially reacting 2-aminoxanthone with sodium nitride to produce diazonium salt. Then, hydrolysis of the salt yielded 2-hydroxyxanthone as a white solid in 69.81% yield. Synthesis of 2-hydroxyxanthone from xanthone had an overall yield of38.35%. In vitro antiplasmodial assay against P. falciparum 3D7 showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration value was 0.44 μg/mL.

Conclusions: An antimalarial compound (2-hydroxyxanthone) was successfully synthesized from xanthone in three steps of synthetic reactions, i.e., the formation of 2-nitroxanthone, 2-aminoxanthone, and 2-hydroxyxanthone.



2-nitroxanthone, 2-aminoxanthone, 2-hydroxyxanthone, in-vitro, antiplasmodium, Plasmodium falciparum 3D7.

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Organic Chemistry and pharmacology


2-nitroxanthone, 2-aminoxanthone, 2-hydroxyxanthone, in-vitro, antiplasmodium, Plasmodium falciparum 3D7.





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Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 10 Issue 12 December 2017 Page: 242-246

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Authors & Affiliations

Amanatie Amanatie
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.

Jumina Jumina
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.

Mustofa Mustofa
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.

Hanafi M
Pusat Penelitian Kimia, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Serpong, Tanggerang 15314, Indonesia.

La Ode Kadidae
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Baru Anduonohu, Kendari, Sulawesi, Tenggara 93232, Indonesia

Sahidin I
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Baru Anduonohu, Kendari, Sulawesi, Tenggara 93232, Indonesia.

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