• Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Innovation Center for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals and Cosmeceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand, Asia.
  • Periyanaina Kesika Innovation Center for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai- 50200, Thailand.
  • Khontaros Chaiyasut Health Innovation Institute, Chiang Mai- 50230, Thailand. Institute of Research and Development, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Chiang Mai 50300, Thailand
  • Piyanut Sittiyuno Innovation Center for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai- 50200, Thailand.
  • Sartjin Peerajan Health Innovation Institute, Chiang Mai- 50230, Thailand.
  • Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Innovation Center for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai- 50200, Thailand.



Antioxidant activity, Ethanolic extract, Phenolic acids, Thai plants



 Objective: Plants are the vital source of pharmaceutically important compounds with less or no adverse side effects. The current study was conducted to catalog the commonly used indigenous and medicinal plants of Thailand based on their phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity.

Methods: The herbs were collected from Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The plants were extracted with 70% ethanol. The total phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity were evaluated.

Results: The ethanolic extract of plant samples was prepared. Among the tested plant samples, Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and Terminalia belerica Roxb. showed highest phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent [GAE]; 764.81 mg GAE/g sample) and antioxidant activity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC]; 394.20 mg/g sample), respectively. About 94-97% of inhibition of free radical was detected in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay tested against the plant samples. The ethanolic extract of Anaxagorea luzonensis Gray., Terminalia sp., T. belerica Roxb, Terminalia chebula Retz., Albizia procera Benth., Harrisonia perforata Merr., and P. emblica Linn. exhibited 97.87, 96.08, 92.26, 86.74, 86.08, 84.47, and 83.13% of superoxide radical inhibition, respectively.

Conclusion: The results suggested that T. belerica Roxb. possessed high TEAC ability and DPPH radical scavenging capacity and A. luzonensis Gray. exhibited high superoxide scavenging activity, when compared to that of the other tested samples. The additional detailed study is desirable to understand the complexity and distribution of bioactive compounds present in the commonly used plant species of Thailand.


Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71(1-2):23-43.

Matkowski A. Plant in vitro culture for the production of antioxidants-a review. Biotechnol Adv 2008;26(6):548-60.

Ali SS, Kasoju N, Luthra A, Singh A, Sharanabasava H, Sahu A, et al. Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. Food Res Int 2008;41:1-15.

Krishnaiah D, Sarbatly R, Nithyanandam R. A review of the antioxidant potential of medicinal plant species. Food Bioprod Process 2011;89:217-33.

Chanwitheesuk A, Teerawutgulrag A, Rakariyatham N. Screening of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds of some edible plants of Thailand. Food Chem 2005;92:491-7.

Tachakittirungrod S, Okonogi S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: Mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract. Food Chem 2007;103:381-8.

Pengkumsri N, Chaiyasut C, Saenjum C, Sirilun S, Peerajan S, Suwannalert P, et al. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 2015;35(2):331-8.

Chaiyasut C, Sivamaruthi BS, Pengkumsri N, Sirilun S, Peerajan S, Chaiyasut K, et al. Anthocyanin profile and its antioxidant activity of widely used fruits, vegetables, and flowers in Thailand. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9(6):218-24.

Sripanidkulchai B, Fangkrathok N. Antioxidant, ant mutagenic and antibacterial activities of extracts from Phyllanthus emblica branches. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2014;36(6):669-74.

Peerajan S, Chaiyasut C, Sirilun S, Chaiyasut K, Kesika P, Sivamaruthi BS. Enrichment of nutritional value of Phyllanthus emblica fruit juice using the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 mediated fermentation. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 2016;36(1):116-23.

Grover IS, Bala S. Antimutagenic activity of Terminalia chebula (myroblan) in Salmonella typhimurium. Indian J Exp Biol 1992;30(4):339-41.

Chattopadhyay RR, Bhattacharyya SK. Plant review Terminalia chebula: An update. Pharmacogn Rev 2007;1(1):151-6.

Zanin JL, de Carvalho BA, Martineli PS, dos Santos MH, Lago JH, Sartorelli P, et al. The genus Caesalpinia L. (Caesalpiniaceae): Phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics. Molecules 2012;17(7):7887-902.

Suresh R, Saravanakumar M, Suganyadev P. Anthocyanins from Indian cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its antioxidant properties. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011;2:1819-28.

Yi B, Hu L, Mei W, Zhou K, Wang H, Luo Y, et al. Antioxidant phenolic compounds of cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan. Molecules 2011;16(12):10157-67.

Fasuyi AO. Nutrient composition and processing effects on cassava Leaf (Manihot esculenta crantz) ant nutrients. Pak J Nutr 2005;4:37-42.

Okeke CU, Iweala E. Antioxidant profile of Dioscorea rotundata, Manihot esculenta, Ipoemea batatas, Vernonia amygdalina and Aloe vera. J Med Res Technol 2007;4:4-10.

Al-Rofaai A, Rahman WA, Sulaiman SF, Yahaya ZS. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) on susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Vet Parasitol 2012;190(1-2):127-35.

Pattanayak P, Behera P, Das D, Panda SK. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4(7):95-105.

Liu X, Zhao M, Wang J, Yang B, Jiang Y. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Emblica fruit (Phyllanthus emblica L.) from six regions in China. J Food Comp Anal 2008;21:219-28.

Gupta M, Shaw BP, Mukherjee A. Evaluation of antipyretic effect of a traditional polyherbal preparation: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Int J Pharm 2008;4:190-5.

Sultana S, Ahmed S, Jahangir T. Emblica officinalis and hepatocarcinogenesis: A chemopreventive study in Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118(1):1-6.

Rahman S, Akbor MM, Howlader A, Jabbar A. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis). Pak J Biol Sci 2009;12(16):1152-5.

Dang GK, Parekar RR, Kamat SK, Scindia AM, Rege NN. Antiinflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation. Phytother Res 2011;25(6):904-8.

Liu X, Zhao M, Wu K, Chai X, Yu H, Tao Z, et al. Immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of phenolics from emblica fruit (Phyllanthus emblica L.). Food Chem 2012;131:685-90.

Nain P, Saini V, Sharma S, Nain J. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Leaves extract in streptozotocin-induced Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;142(1):65-71.

Thakur RS, Ahirwar BA. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants for cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9(5):198-202.

Mehta J, Jandaik S, Urmila. Evaluation of phytochemicals and synergistic interaction between plant extracts and antibiotics for efflux pump inhibitory activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8(10):217-23.

Dattatray BP, Padmaja AM, Nirmala NR. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica in behavioral models of depression: Involvement of monoaminergic system. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(8):615-20.

Bahekar SE, Kale RS. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in Wistar rats. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2016;8(2):119-23.

Tangsaengvit N, Kitphati W, Tadtong S, Bunyapraphatsara N, Nukoolkarn V. Neurite outgrowth and neuroprotective effects of quercetin from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. On cultured P19-derived neurons. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:838051.

Marzouk MS, Soliman FM, Shehata IA, Rabee M, Fawzy GA. Flavonoids and biological activities of Jussiaea repens. Nat Prod Res 2007;21(5):436-43.

Chiabchalard A, Tencomnao T, Santiyanont R. Effect of Gymnema inodorum on postprandial peak plasma glucose levels in healthy human. Afr J Biotechnol 2010;9(7):1079-85.

Tsumbu CN, Deby-Dupont G, Tits M, Angenot L, Franck T, Serteyn D, et al. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lip peroxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes. Nutrients 2011;3:818-38.

Abd-Aziz SM, Low CN, Chai LC, Abd-Razak SS, Selamat J, Son R, et al. Screening of selected Malaysian plants against several food borne pathogen bacteria. Int Food Res J 2011;18:1195-201.

Hussain EH, Jamil K, Rao M. Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2001;16(2):190-4.

Yang HC, Zuo Y, Fogo AB. Models of chronic kidney disease. Drug Discov Today Dis Models 2010;7(1-2):13-19.

Maurya H, Kumar T. A review on comprehensive overview in the management of nephrotic disorders. J Crit Rev 2016;3(2):34-43.



How to Cite

Chaiyasut, C., P. Kesika, K. Chaiyasut, P. Sittiyuno, S. Peerajan, and B. S. Sivamaruthi. “TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF REPRESENTATIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THAILAND”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, no. 11, Nov. 2017, pp. 137-41, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i11.20741.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>