Future Medical Doctors Are Ready to Prescribe Antimicrobials Safely and Rationally
Keywords:Future Medical Doctors, Prescribe, Antimicrobials, Safely, Rationally
Therefore, the answer remains in improving clinical pharmacology teaching and learning in undergraduate curriculum [40, 41]with necessary assessment program regarding prescribing skill need to incorporate with the hope situation will improve to provide better health care for common people of this planet.Â
Jawetz E. Antimicrobial chemotherapy. Annu Rev Microbiol 1956; 10: 85-114.
Burnet M. Natural history of infectious disease. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1962
Spellberg B, Taylor-Blake B. On the exoneration of Dr. William H. Stewart: debunking an urban legend. Infect Dis Poverty 2013; 2: 3.
Pinner RW, Teutsch SM, Simonsen L, et al. Trends in infectious diseases mortality in the United States. JAMA 1996; 275 (3): 189-93.
World Health Organization (WHO). Deaths by cause, sex and mortality stratum in WHO Regions, estimates for 2001. World Health Report-2002. World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 2002. Available at http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf?ua=1 [Accessed on August 10, 2017]
Spellberg B. Dr. William H. Stewart: mistaken or maligned? Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47 (2):294.
Spellberg B, Guidos R, Gilbert D, Bradley J, Boucher HW, Scheld WM, Bartlett JG, Edwards J Jr; Infectious Diseases Society of America. The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46 (2):155-64.
Spellberg B, Powers JH, Brass EP, Miller LG, Edwards JE Jr. Trends in antimicrobial drug development: implications for the future. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38 (9):1279-86.
Fauci AS. Infectious diseases: considerations for the 21st century. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32 (5): 675-85.
Petersdorf RG. The doctorsâ€™ dilemma. N Engl J Med 1978; 299 (12): 628-34.
Petersdorf RG. Whither infectious diseases? Memories, manpower, and money. J Infect Dis 1986; 153 (2): 189-95.
Palumbi SR. Humans as the worldâ€™s greatest evolutionary force. Science 2001; 293 (5536):1786â€“90.
Alanis AJ. Resistance to antibiotics: are we in the post-antibiotic era? Arch Med Res 2005; 36 (6): 697â€“705
World Health Organization (WHO). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). 2016 Update. Available at http://www.who.int/tb/challenges/mdr/mdr_tb_factsheet.pdf [Accessed on August 5, 2017]
World Health Organization (WHO). Tuberculosis (TB). Drug-resistant TB: XDR-TB FAQ. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). 2017. Available at http://www.who.int/tb/areas-of-work/drug-resistant-tb/xdr-tb-faq/en/ [Accessed on August 5, 2017]
Sengupta S, Chattopadhyay MK, Grossart HP. The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature. Front Microbiol 2013; 4: 47.
Kelland K. EU doctors turn to last-ditch antibiotics as resistance grows. Chicago Tribune, 2012. Available at http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-11-15/business/sns-rt-europe-antibioticssuperbugsl5e8mf701-20121115_1_antibiotic-resistance-superbugs-bloodstream-infections [Accessed on August 5, 2017]
Foote C. Overuse of antibiotics â€“ doctors, not patients, to blame? BMC Series Blog 2013. Available at https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcseriesblog/2013/05/31/overuse-of-antibiotics-doctors-not-patients-to-blame/ [Accessed on August 5, 2017]
Ventola CL. The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis: Part 1: Causes and Threats. Pharm Ther 2015; 40(4): 277-283.
The Economist. Resistance to antibiotics. The spread of superbugs. What can be done about the rising risk of antibiotic resistance? 2011. Available at http://www.economist.com/node/18483671 [Accessed on August 5, 2017]
McCartney M. Blaming doctors wonâ€™t reduce antibiotic overuse. BMJ 2015; 351: h4697.
Harrison JW, Svec TA. The beginning of the end of the antibiotic era? Part I. The problem: abuse of the "miracle drugs". Quintessence Int 1998; 29(3): 151-62.
Harrison JW, Svec TA. The beginning of the end of the antibiotic era? Part II. Proposed solutions to antibiotic abuse. Quintessence Int 1998; 29(4): 223-9.
Meikle J. Doctors write 10m needless antibiotic prescriptions a year, says NICE. The Guardian. 2015. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/aug/18/soft-touch-doctors-write-10m-needless-prescriptions-a-year-says-nice [Accessed August 6, 2017]
Abbo LM, Cosgrove SE, Pottinger PS, Pereyra M, Sinkowitz-Cochran R, Srinivasan A, Webb DJ, Hooton TM. Medical studentsâ€™ perceptions and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship: how are we educating our future prescribers? Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57 (5):631-38.
Khan AKA, Banu G, Reshma KK. Antibiotic resistance and usage-a survey on the knowledge, attitude, perceptions and practices among the medical students of a Southern Indian Teaching Hospital. J Clin Diagn Res 2013; 7 (8):1613-16.
Dyar OJ, Howard P, Nathwani D, Pulcini C; ESGAP (the ESCMID [European Society of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases] Study Group for Antibiotic Policies). Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of French medical students about antibiotic prescribing and resistance. Med Mal Infect 2013; 43 (10):423-30.
Wasserman S, Potgieter S, Shoul E, Constant D, Stewart A, Mendelson M, Boyles TH. South African medical studentsâ€™ perceptions and knowledge about antibiotic resistance and appropriate prescribing: Are we providing adequate training to future prescribers? S Afr Med J 2017; 107(5): 405Â410.
Chambers D. Trainee doctors not adequately prepared to prescribe antibioticsâ€š study finds. Business Day, 2017. Available at https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/national/health/2017-05-01-trainee-doctors-not-adequately-prepared-to-prescribe-antibiotics-study-finds/ [Accessed on August 5, 2017]
Ferdoush J, Parveen K, Ata M, Reza FH, Rahman MS. Knowledge, perception and preparedness of future prescribers about antimicrobial stewardship. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2016; 11 (4): 928-34.
Brinkman DJ, Tichelaar J, Schutte T, Benemei S, BÃ¶ttiger Y, Chamontin B, Christiaens T, Likic R, MaË‡iulaitis R, Marandi T, Monteiro EC, Papaioannidou P, Pers YM, Pontes C, Raskovic A, Regenthal R, Sanz EJ, Tamba BI, Wilson K, Vries T, Richir MC, Agtmael MV; Working Group Research on CPT Education of the European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (EACPT). Essential Competencies in Prescribing: A First European Cross-Sectional Study Among 895 Final-Year Medical Students. Clin Pharm Ther 2017; 101 (2): 281-289.
Mucklow J, Bollington L, Maxwell S. Assessing prescribing competence. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2012; 74(4): 632-39.
Khan AKA, Rashed MR, Muneersha TKM, Rahiman OMF. Assessment of the Prescribing Knowledge, Attitude and Skills of Medical Students and Interns in a Large Teaching Hospital of Southern India. Biomed Pharmacol J 2013; 6(1): 63-9.
Ross S, Loke YK. Do educational interventions improve prescribing by medical students and junior doctors? A systematic review. Br J Clin Pharm 2009; 67(6): 662-70.
Aronson JK. A prescription for better prescribing. Br J Clin Pharm 2006; 61(5): 487-91.
Ellis A. Prescribing rights: are medical students properly prepared for them? BMJ 2002; 324: 1591
O'Shaughnessy L, Haq I, Maxwell S, Llewelyn M. Teaching of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in UK medical schools: current status in 2009. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 70(1): 143-8.
Desai MK, Panchal JR, Shah S, Iyer G. Evaluation of impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics to medical undergraduates and interns. Int J App Basic Med Res 2016; 6 (3): 205-10.
Royal College of Physicians. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics in a Changing World. Report of a Working Party. London: RCP, 1999. Available at https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0924/4392/files/clin_pharm_1999web.pdf [Accessed on August 6, 2017]
Maxwell SRJ. An agenda for UK clinical pharmacology. How should teaching of undergraduates in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed? Br J Clin Pharmcol 2016; 73 (6): 893-899.
Upadhyaya P, Seth V, Sharma M, Ahmed M, Moghe VV, Khan ZY, Gupta VK, Jain SV, Soni U, Bhatia M, Abhijit K, Goyal J. Prescribing knowledge in the light of undergraduate clinical pharmacology and therapeutics teaching in India: views of first-year postgraduate students. Adv Med Educ Pract 2012; 3: 47-53.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.