EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM CLOVE AND EUCALYPTUS
Â Objective: To substantiate the data for naturally available sources of antibacterial and bactericidal agents, this study was undertaken. The specific aim was to analyze antibacterial properties of two essential oils from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) against Sphingobium indicum, Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive bacteria), which are clinically significant strains.
Methods: The analysis was performed by measuring the zone of inhibition or haloâ€ using disk diffusion method.
Results: Out of two oils used, clove oil was found to be more effective in inhibiting growth of all the four types of bacterial strains used in the study. B. subtilis was the most susceptible bacterial strain to clove oil showing maximum area of 7.54 cm2 for the halo/zone of inhibition, whereas E. coli was the least susceptible with 5.14 cm2 area of the halo. Eucalyptus oil inhibited growth in S. indicum and E. coli but the area of inhibition zone was much less in comparison to clove oil. Staphylococcus and Bacillus strains were found completely insensitive to eucalyptus oil.
Conclusion: New antibacterial agents are very valuable in multidrug-resistant bacteria and the present study provides additional support to the already available data to use essential oils against various strains of bacteria. The clove oil proved more suitable as antibacterial agent than eucalyptus oil.
Keywords: Essential oils, Antibacterial properties, Disk diffusion
2. Aggarwal SG, Goyal S. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Ocimum kilimandscharium. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(1):53-5.
3. Meeker HG, Linke HA. The antibacterial action of eugenol, thyme oil, and related essential oils used in dentistry. Compendium 1988;9(1):32, 34-5.
4. Shapiro S, Meier A, Guggenheim B. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1994;9(4):202-8.
5. Shahwar D, Raza MA, Bukhari S, Bukhari G. Ferric reducing antioxidant power of essential oils extracted from Eucalyptusand curcuma species. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:S1633-6.
6. Owlia P, Saderia H, Rasooli I, Sefidkon F. Antimicrobial characteristics of some herbal Oils on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with special reference to their chemical compositions. Iran J Pharm Res 2009;8(2):107-14.
7. Filoche SK, Soma K, Sissons CH. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2005;20(4):221-5.
8. Lin KH, Lin MY, Shih MC, Yang K, Hwang SY. Major chemotypes and antioxidative activity of the leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh from a clonal orchard. Food Chem 2007;105:133 9.
9. Kumar UK, Bhandari A, Kumar Y. Phytochemical investigation and comparison of antimicrobial screening of clove and cardamom. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2010;1:138-14.
10. Reddy LJ, Jose B, Jalli RD, Gopu S. Evaluation of antibacterial and DPPH radical scavenging activities of the leaf essential oil and leaf extracts of Uvaria narum (Dunal) Wall. Int J Res Pure Appl Microbiol 2012;2(2):13-9.
11. Agarwal G, Hore SK, Prakash O, Pant AK. Hypotensive activity of T. connaroides extracts in rats. J Vet Pharmcol Toxicol 2006;5:72-3.
12. De Esparza RR, Bye R, Meckes M, Torres Lopez J, Estrada J. Antibacterial activity of Piqueria trinervia, a Mexican medicinal plant used to treat diarrhea. Pharm Biol 2007;45:446-52.
13. Schinor EC, Salvador MJ, Ito IY, Dias DA. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and isolated constituents from Chresta scapigera. Braz J Microbiol 2007;38:145-9.
14. Zaika LL. Spices and herbs: Their antibacterial activity and its determination. J Food Saf 1988;23:97-118.
15. Matan N, Rimkeeree H, Mawson AJ, Chompreeda P, Haruthaithanasan V, Parker M. Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon and clove oils under modified atmosphere conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 2006;107(2):180 5.
16. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils â€“ A review. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(2):446-75.
17. Barbosa LN, Rall VL, Fernandes AA, Ushimaru PI, da Silva Probst I, Fernandes A Jr. Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2009;6(6):725-8.
18. Safaei-Ghomi J, Ahd AA. Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta. Pharmacogn Mag 2010;6(23):172-5.
19. Jeyaseelan EC, Jashothan PT. In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2(9):717-21.
20. Chaieb K, Hajlaoui H, Zmantar T, Kahla-Nakbi AB, Rouabhia M, Mahdouani K, et al. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): A short review. Phytother Res 2007;21(6):501-6.
21. Chaieb K, Zmantar T, Ksouri R, Hajlaoui H, Mahdouani K, Abdelly C, et al. Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species. Mycoses 2007;50(5):403-6.
22. LÃ³pez P, SÃ¡nchez C, Batlle R, NerÃn C. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: Susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:6939-46.
23. Fu Y, Zu Y, Chen L, Shi X, Wang Z, Sun S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination. Phytother Res 2007;21(10):989-94.
24. Cimanga K, Kambu K, Tona L, Apers S, De Bruyne T, Hermans N, et al. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79(2):213 20.
25. Takarada K, Kimizuka R, Takahashi N, Honma K, Okuda K, Kato T. A comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of essential oils against oral pathogens. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004;19(1):61-4.
26. Pednekar PP, Vakil BV, Sane RT, Datar AG. Development of analytical method for identification of essential oil from Blumea eriantha DC in plasma. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6(3):239-42.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.