• AMRITA KUMARI Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
  • SUMAN SHARMA Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.


Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced toxicity in lungs of albino mice.

Methods: Albino mice were divided into eight groups and five mice were kept in each group. The experiment was carried out for 15 and 45 days. Group 1 mice were kept as control. Group 2 mice were given an oral dose of 1 mg/kg body weight of cadmium chloride on alternate days. Group 3 mice were administered an oral dose of 1 mg/kg body weight of cadmium chloride on alternate days and 100 mg/kg body weight of curcumin daily. Group 4 mice were received an oral dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of curcumin daily. Autopsies were done on 15 and 45 days post-treatment.

Results: The results of the present study showed a significant decrease in organ weight at both the intervals. Biochemical analysis showed decline in total glycogen, cholesterol, and protein concentration in lung of cadmium chloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the cadmium chloride concentration in cadmium chloride-treated group was increased in comparison to the control group. However, the treatment with curcumin ameliorated cadmium chloride-induced changes in lung tissue as it instigated the antioxidant enzymes remarkably. However, cotreatment of cadmium chloride with curcumin boosted the changes due to cadmium chloride.

Conclusion: Hence, we concluded that curcumin has protective efficacy in the lungs against the cadmium chloride generated toxicity in albino mice.

Keywords: Cadmium chloride, Curcumin, Protective, Oxidative stress, Pollutant


1. Haynes WM, Lide DR. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: A Ready-reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2011.
2. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Humans Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control; 2003.
3. IARC. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans, Cadmium. Lyon: IARC Press; 1993. p. 119-238.
4. EPA. Cadmium Compounds, Technology Transfer Network-air Toxics Web Site. Washington, DC, USA: EPA; 2007.
5. OEHHA. Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Sacramento, CA: California Environmental Protection Agency; 2005. Available from:
6. Sharma S, Kumari A. Protective effect of Curcuma longa administration on lung of mice exposed to cadmium. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:536-39.
7. IPCS. Environmental Health Criteria 134. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.
8. Jarup L. Cadmium overload and toxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002;17:35-9.
9. Mannino D, Holguin F, Greves H, Savage-Brown A, Stock A, Jones R. Urinary cadmium levels predict lower lung function in current and former smokers: Data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Thorax 2004;59:194-8.
10. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D, Hassoun E, Bagchi M. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of chromium and cadmium ion. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2000;19:201-3.
11. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1999.
12. Verougstraete V, Lison D. Cadmium, lung, and prostate cancer: A systematic review of recent epidemiological data. J Toxicol Environ Health 2003;6:227-55.
13. Sorahan T, Esmen N. Lung cancer mortality in UK nickel-cadmium battery workers, 1947-2000. Occup Environ Med 2004;61:108-16.
14. Suhartono E, Iskandar, Santosa PB. Ameliorative effects of different parts of gemor (Nothaphoebe Coriacea) on cadmium induced glucose metabolism alteration in vitro. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:17-20.
15. Nath J, Kalita B, Das G. Curcumin and its nanoformulations: A comprehensive overview for the management of diabetes complications. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11:18-21.
16. SBarclay LR, Vinqvist MR, Mukai K, Goto H, Hashimoto Y, Tokunaga A, et al. On the antioxidant mechanism of curcumin: Classical methods are needed to determine antioxidant mechanism and activity. Org Lett 2000;2:2841-3.
17. Kamel R, Hashim AA, Ali SA. Palliative effect of curcumin on Stz-induced diabetes in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:558-63.
18. Montgomery R. Determination of glycogen. Arch Biochem Biophy 1957;67:378-81.
19. Zlatkis A, Zak B, Boyle AJ. A new method for the direct determination of serum cholesterol. J Lab Clin Med 1953;41:486-92.
20. Lowery OH, Roseburg NJ, Farr AL, Raudall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75.
21. Ballantine R, Barford DD. Detennination of metals. In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO, editors. Methods in Enzymology. New York: Academic Press. Inc.; 1957. p. 1002.
22. Timbrell JA. Principles of Biochemical Toxicology. 2nd ed. London: Taylor and Francis; 1991.
23. Nwachukwu KC, Asagba SO, Nwose C, Okoh MP. Radiation protection and anti-oxidative effects of garlic, onion and ginger extracts, X-ray exposed albino rats as model for biochemical studies. Afr J Biochem Res 2014;8:166-73.
24. Anderson H, Larsen S, Splid H, Christenson ND. Multivariate statistical analysis of organ weights in toxicity studies. Toxicology 1999;136:67.
25. Parasuraman S, Zhen KM, Banik U, Christapher PV. Ameliorative effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in sprague-dawley rats. Pharmacogn Res 2017;9:247-52.
26. Noble T, Zingg JM, Paul L, Smith D, Meydani M. The effect of curcumin plus piperine on body weight and fat loss as well as on the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice. Nutrition 2013;10:29.
27. Bastaki SM, Ahmed MM, Zaabi AA, Amir N, Adeghate E. Effect of turmeric on colon histology, body weight, ulcer, IL-23, MPO and glutathione in acetic-acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:72.
28. Assis RP, Arcaro CA, Gutierres VO, Oliveira JO, Costa PI, Baviera AM, et al. Combined effects of curcumin and lycopene or bixin in yoghurt on inhibition of LDL oxidation and increases in HDL and paraoxonase levels in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:332-9.
29. Eriyamremu GE, Asagba SO, Onyeneke EC, Adaikpo MA. Changes in carboxypeptidas A, dipeptidase and Na+/K+ ATPase activities in the intestine of rats orally exposed to different doses of cadmium. BioMetals 2005;18:1-6.
30. Brzoska MM, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Jurczuk M, Galazyn-Sidorczuk M. Cadmium turnover and changes of zinc and copper body status of rats continuously exposed to cadmium and ethanol. Alcohol Alcohol 2002;37:213-21.
31. Desai KR, Moid N, Patel PB, Highland HN. Protective effect of Allium sativum on deltamethrin induced toxicity in reproductive tissues of male mice. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015;6:1711-20.
32. Merali Z, Singhal R. Influence of chronic exposure to cadmium on hepatic and renal cyclic AMP-protein kinase system. Toxicology 1975;4:207-14.
33. Hodson PV. Temperature effects on lactate glycogen metabolism in zinc intoxicated rainbow trout Salmo gairdniri. J Fish Res Board Canada 1976;33:1393-7.
34. Rana SV, Prakash R, Kumar A, Sharma CB. A study of glycogen in the liver of metal-fed rats. Toxicol Lett 1985;29:1-4.
35. Purohit RK, Chakrawarti A, Bhartiya KM. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in mouse kidney. Iran J Radiat Res 2007;5:125-30.
36. Novelli EL, Marques SF, Almeida JA, Diniz YS, Faine LA, Ribas BO. Toxic mechanism of cadmium exposure on cardiac tissue. Toxic Subs Mech 2000;19:207-17.
37. Sharma S, Vijaya P. Nephrotoxic effects of cadmium. Trends Life Sci 2015;4:352-7.
38. Sharma S, Vijaya P. Ameliorating potential of lycopene against cadmium toxicity of kidney of albino mice. Int J Adv Res 2015;3:766-70.
39. Walaas O, Walaas W, Gronnerod O. Molecular events in the action of insulin on the cell metabolism; the significance of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases. Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1974;191:93-129.
40. Ivanova-Chemishanska L. Dithiocarbamates. In: Toxicity of Pesticides, Health Aspects of Chemical Safety WHO Coperhagan. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1982. p. 158-69.
41. Heath AG. Water Pollution and Fish Physiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1995.
42. Seo K, Choi MS, Jung UJ, Kim HJ, Yeo J, Jeon SM, et al. Effect of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities in diabetic db/db mice. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008;52:995-4.
43. Chakrawarti A, Purohit RK, Agarwal M, Joshi P, Basu A, Bhartiya KM, et al. Modulation of radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in mouse kidney by Emblica officinales Linn. Iran J Radiat Res 2010;8:3-10.
44. Wassermann M, Wassermann D, Aronovaski I. The effects organochlorine insecticides on serum cholesterol level in people occupationally exposed. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1970;5:368-72.
45. Yadav R, Jindal A, Goyal PK. Protective effect of diltiazem against cadmium induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. Ann Neurosci 2005;12:37-40.
46. El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, Kedwany FS, Baghdadi HH. Cadmium induced changes in lipid peroxidation, blood hematology, biochemical parameters and semen quality of male rats: Protective role of Vitamin E and ?-carotene. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:1563-71.
47. Kaoud HA, Kamel MM, Abdel-Razek AH, Kamel GM, Ahmed KA. Neurobehavioural, neurochemical and neuromorphological effects of cadmium in male rats. J Am Sci 2010;6:189-02.
48. Somade PM, Adnaik RS, Mohite SK, Magdum CS. Protective role of Cucumis melo against cadmium induced oxidative neurotoxicity in mice. Int J Univ Pharm Biosci 2014;3:269-79.
49. Babaknejad N, Moshtaghie AA, Nayeri H, Hani M, Bahrami S. Protective role of zinc and magnesium against cadmium nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 2016;174:112-20.
50. Purohit RK, Joshi PK, Basu A, Agarwal M, Chakrawati A, Bhartiya KM. Modulatory influence of Emblica officinalis Linn. On radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the brain of Swiss albino mice. Pharmacologyonline 2010;3:304-16.
51. Bacq M, Alexander P. Fundamentals of Radiobiology. New York: International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Modern Trends in Physiological Sciences, Pergamon; 1961.
52. Susan TA, Sobha K, Veeraiah K, Tilak KS. Studies on biochemical changes in the tissues of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to fenvalerate technical grade. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci 2010;2:53-62.
53. Harper AJ, Rodwell VM, Mayes PA. Review of Physiological Chemistry. 16th ed. Los. Altos, California: Large Medical Publication; 1977.
54. Hashish EA, Elgaml SA. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect of curcumin against copper toxicity in rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2016;31:270-7.
55. Eybl V, Kotyzova D, Bludovska M. The effect of curcumin on cadmium-induced oxidative damage and trace elements level in the liver of rats and mice. Toxicol Lett 2004;151:79-85.
56. Sarvalkar PP, Walvekar MV, Shaikh NH. Effects of dietary curcumin on protein profile in mice submandibular glands during aging. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2014;3:258-64.
57. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;18:321-36.
58. Massadeh AM, Al-Safi SA, Momani IF, Al-Mahmoud M, Alkofahi AS. Analysis of cadmium and lead in mice organs effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) on the distribution and immunosuppressive effect of cadmium-lead mixture in mice. Biol Trace Elem Res 2007;115:157-67.
59. Sompamit K, Kukongviriyapan U, Donpunha W, Nakmareong S, Kukongviriyapan V. Reversal of cadmium-induced vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress by meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in mice. Toxicol Lett 2010;198:77-82.
60. Kukongviriyapan U, Pannangpetch P, Kukongviriyapan V, Donpunha W, Sompamit K, Surawattanawan P. Curcumin protects against cadmium-induced vascular dysfunction, hypertension and tissue cadmium accumulation in mice. Nutrients 2014;6:1194-208.
12 Views | 34 Downloads
How to Cite
KUMARI, A., and S. SHARMA. “CURCUMIN PROTECTION AGAINST CADMIUM CHLORIDE-INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN LUNGS OF SWISS ALBINO MICE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 6, Apr. 2020, pp. 103-7, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i6.37463.
Original Article(s)