ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF THE LEAVES ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PICRIA FEL-TERRAE LOUR.
Keywords:Picria fel-terrae, Linderniaceae, Acute toxicity, Indonesia
Â Objective: Picria fel-terrae belongs to family Linderniaceae is also known as Pugun tano by Indonesian people. The ethanolic extract of plant leaves has several potential pharmacological activities including antidiabetic, anthelmintic, and antioxidant. However, the toxicity of the plant extract is rarely explored. This work was to investigate toxicity of the leaf ethanolic extract of P. fel-terrae on Artemia salina and male mice.
Methods: Acute toxicity of the plant extract was studied by in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro study was carried out by exposing nauplii to the plant extract at concentrations of 10, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 Î¼g/ml for 48 h. In vivo study was performed on male mice that divided into four groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV were treated with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 0.5%, the ethanolic extract of plant leaves at doses of 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The animal toxic symptoms were observed every day for 14 days. On day 15, the blood of mice was collected to measure alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine levels. The effects of plant extract on vital animal organs such as heart, liver, and kidney were also studied. Statistical analysis of data was performed using analysis of variance and followed by Tukey post hoc.
Results: The results showed that the leaf ethanolic extract of P. fel-terrae to have weakly toxicity on A. salina with the LC50 of 768.07 Î¼g/ml. At in vivo studies, the toxic symptoms of mice were not identified during experiment with all doses of the plant extract for 14 days. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine levels were no significantly different between control and all treatment groups (p>0.05). However, alanine aminotransferase level changed when mice were exposed by the plant extract at the doses of 2.000 and 5.000 mg/kg bw. Although the mice were not dead during experiment, the animal organs such as heart, liver, and kidney were histologically changed.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the ethanolic extract of P. fel-terrae leaves has weakly toxicity on A. salina and causes histological changes on male mice organs at the high doses.
van Valkenburg JL, Bunyapraphatsara N. Plant Resources of South-East Asia: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers; 2001.
Tinton A. Smart Book of Medicinal Plants. 1st ed. Jakarta: Agromedia Pustaka; 2008.
Zhou JM, Wang LS, Niu XM, Sun HD, Guo YJ. Phenylethanoid glycosidesfrom Picria felterrae Lour. J Integr Plant Biol 2005;47:632-6.
Huang Y, de Bruyne T, Apers S, Ma Y, Claeys M, van den Berghe D, et al. Complement-inhibiting cucurbitacin glycocides from Picria fel-terrae. J Nat Prod 1998;61:757-61.
Huang Y, de Bruyne T, Apers S, Ma Y, Claeys M, Pieters L, et al. Flavonoid glucorunoides from Picria fel-terrae. Phytochemistry 1999;62:1701-3.
Fang H, Ning DS, Liang XY. Studies on technology optimization for extracting triterpenoid saponins from Picria fel-terrae by multi-target grading method. J Chin Med Mater 2009;32:1902-5.
Wang LS, Li SH, Zou JM, Guo YJ, Sun HD. Two new terpenoids from Picria fel-terrae. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2009;8:491-4.
Patilaya P, Husori DI, Sumantri IB. The anthelmintic effects of ethanol extract of Curanga fel-Terrae leaves on Ascaridia galli. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:117-9.
Patilaya P, dan Husori DI. Preliminary study on the anthelmintic activity of the leaf ethanolic extract of Indonesian Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) merr. Int J PharmTech Res 2015;8:347-51.
Harfina F, Bahri S, Saragih A. The effect of Puguntano (Curanga fel-terrae Merr.) leaves on diabetes mellitus. J Pharm Pharmacol 2012;2:112-8.
Sitorus P, Harahap U, Pandapotan M, Barus T. Isolation of Î²-sitosterol from n-hexane extract of Picria fel-terrae Lour. leave and study of its antidiabetic effect in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Int J PharmTech Res 2014;6:137-41.
Lestari P, Hadisahputra S, Ilyas S, Satria D. Combinational effects of n-hexane extract of poguntano leaves (Picria fel-terrae Lour.) with doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Chem Pharm Res 2015;7:353-5.
Satria D, Furqan M, Hadisahputra S, Rosidah. Combinational effects of ethylacetate extract of Picria fel-terrae Lour and Doxorubicin on T47D breast cancer cells. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:73-6.
Furqan M, Hadisahputra S, Rosidah. Effects of inhibition cell Cycle and apoptosis of poguntano leaves ethylacetate extract (Picria fel-terrae Lour.) on breast cancer cells. Int J PharmTech Res 2014;6:1096-9.
Sihotang Y, Silalahi J, Hadisahputra S, Anjelisa P, Satria D. Cardioprotective effect of ethylacetate extract of Poguntano (Picria fel-terrae Lour.) Against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2016;8:466-70.
Dalimunthe A, Harahap U, Rosidah, Nasution MP. Evaluation of diuretic activity of Picria fel-terrae Lour leaves extracts. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:204-5.
Harahap U, Husori DI, Marianne, Yuliasmi S, Patilaya P, Laila L, et al. Inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Curanga fel-terrae (Pugun tano) leaves on acetylcholine muscarinic-3 receptors induced on isolated guinea pig tracheal. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:95-8.
Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL, et al. Brine shrimp: A convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Med 1982;45:31-4.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development). Test No. 423: Acute Oral Toxicity - Acute Toxic Class Method. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2002.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development). Test No. 420: Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Procedure. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2002.
Chinedu E, Arome D, Ameh FS. A new method for determining acute toxicity in animal models. Toxicol Int 2013;20:224-6.
Rahmani M, Ismail HB, Ahmad F, Manas AR, Sukari MA. Screening of tropical plants for the presence of biocative compounds. Pertanika 1992;15:131-5.
Canales M, Hernandez T, Serrano R, Hernandez LB, Duran A, Rios V. Antimicrobial and general toxicity activities of gymnosperma glatinosum: A comparative study. J Ethnopharm 2007;110:343-7.
Padmaja R, Arun PC, Prashanth D, Deepak M, Amit A, Anjana M. Brine shrimp lathality bioassay of selected Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 2002;73:508-10.
Moshi MJ, Innocent E, Magadula JJ, Otieno DF, Weisheit A, Mbabazi PK, et al. Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as traditional medicine in Kagera region, North Western Tanzania. Tanzania J Health Res 2010;12:63-7.
Kumarasingha R, Karpe AV, Preston S, Yeo TC, Lim DS, Tu CL, et al. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fraction of Picria fel-terrae Lour. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drugs Resist 2016;6:171-8.
Gad SC. Model selection and scaling. Animal Model in Toxicology. Boca Raton, USA: CRC, Taylor and Francis Group; 2007. p. 830-5.
Parasuraman S. Toxicological screening. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2011;2:74-9.
Tabrizi BA, Kararoudi MN, Mahmoudian B. Evaluation of serumal levels of AST, ALT, total bilirubin, glucose, urea, and creatinin in mice after administration of Tc-99m MIBI. Int J Anim Veter Adv 2012;4:68-70.
Kaushik U, Aeri V, Mir SR. Cucurbitacinâ€“an insight into medicinal leads from nature. Pharmacogn Rev 2015;9:12-8.
Gry J, Soborg I, Anderssen HC. Cucurbitacin in Plant Food. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers; 2006.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.