• Putri Cahaya Situmorang Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.
  • Syafruddin Ilyas Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.


Preeclampsia (PE) have a high risk of pregnancy disorder and can cause liver and kidney disease. PE is a dangerous disease in Indonesia with a high risk of cardiovascular death. PE has biomarkers such as proteinuria, blood pressure, dipstick test, renin-angiotensin system, adipsin, calcium/ creatinine (Cr) ratio, albumin/Cr ratio, and uric acid. Apoptosis occurs in the placenta’s PE, where trophoblasts invade and overhaul the uterine spiral artery in the epidermal growth factor signaling system, and the expression of miRNA in PE is targeting genes in a variety of pathophysiological processes can cause kidney and hepatic disease. In this review, we will discuss role of HSP, miRNA, Immunology cell and the risk of kidney and hepatic disease of patient of Preeclampsia.

Keywords: Preeclampsia, Placenta, Kidney diseases, Hepatic diseases, mRNA.

Author Biographies

Putri Cahaya Situmorang, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Syafruddin Ilyas, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences


1. Alrahmani L, Willrich MV. The Complement Alternative Pathway and Preeclampsia. Current Hypertension Reports; 2018.
2. Correa PJ, Palmeiro Y, Soto MJ, Ugarte C, Illanes SE. Hypertension in pregnancy etiopathogenesis, prediction, and prevention of preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 2016;35:3;280-94.
3. SKDI. Number of Maternal Mortality. In: RI D, editor. Jakarta: Directorate of Maternal Health; 2007. p. 1-6.
4. Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Kemenkes RI).Situasi Kesehatan Ibu. Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2014. p. 1-6.
5. Nzelu D, Dumitrascu-Biris D, Nicolaides KH, Kametas NA. Chronic hypertension: First-trimester blood pressure control and likelihood of severe hypertension, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018;218:337.e1-000000.
6. Quattrone A, Laura P, Valeria S, Nicola S, Daniela N, Angela C, et al. Quantitation of Bcl-2 oncogene in cultures lymphoma/leukimia cell lines and in primary leukimia B-cells by a highly sensitive RT-PCR method. Haematologica 1995;80;495-504.
7. Allen AM, Kim WR, Larson JJ, Rosedahl JK, Yawn BP, McKeon K, et al. The epidemiology of liver diseases unique to pregnancy in a US community: A Population-based study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;14:287-940.
8. Rajakumar A, Cerdeira AS, Rana S, Zsengeller Z, Edmunds L, Jeyabalan A, et al. Transcriptionally active syncytial aggregates in the maternal circulation may contribute to circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 in preeclampsia. Hypertension 2012;59:256-64.
9. Allaire AD, Ballenger KA, Wells SR, McMahon MJ, Lessey BA. Placental apoptosis in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96:271-6.
10. Ishihara N, Matsuo H, Murakoshi H, Laoag-Fernandez JB, Samoto T, Maruo T, et al. Increased apoptosis in the syncytiotrophoblast in human term placentas complicated by either preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:158-66.
11. Murti B, Td O, Anantanyu S. Path analysis on the effect of social capital on the empowerment of pregnant women in preeclampsia prevention using preceede-proceede in Kediri East Java, Indonesia. Asian J Pharm Clinic Res 2018;11:4.
12. Shinar S, Asher-Landsberg J, Schwartz A, Ram-Weiner M, Kupferminc MJ, Many A, et al. Isolated proteinuria is a risk factor for pre-eclampsia: A retrospective analysis of the maternal and neonatal outcomes in women presenting with isolated gestational proteinuria. J Perinatol 2016;36:25-9.
13. Hod T, Cerdeira AS, Karumanchi SA. Molecular mechanisms of preeclampsia. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2015;5: pii: a023473.
14. Baba Y, Yamada T, Obata-Yasuoka M, Yasuda S, Ohno Y, Kawabata K, et al. Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio in pregnant women after dipstick testing: Prospective observational study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015;15:331.
15. Mateus J, Newman R, Sibai BM, Li Q, Barton JR, Combs CA, et al. Massive urinary protein excretion associated with greater neonatal risk in preeclampsia. AJP Rep 2017;7:e49-e58.
16. Yamada T, Obata-Yasuoka M, Hamada H, Baba Y, Ohkuchi A, Yasuda S, et al. Isolated gestational proteinuria preceding the diagnosis of preeclampsia - an observational study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2016;95:1048-54.
17. Bae EH, Kim JW, Choi HS, Ma SK, Kim SW. Impact of random urine proteinuria on maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy: A retrospective case-control study. Korean J Intern Med 2017;32:1062 8.
18. Kim W. A simple pregnancy-related kidney disease screening method: Random proteinuria testing. Korean J Intern Med 2017;32:996-7.
19. Wiles KS, Bramham K, Vais A, Harding KR, Chowdhury P, Taylor CJ, et al. Pre-pregnancy counselling for women with chronic kidney disease : A retrospective analysis of nine years experience. BMC Nephrol 2015;16:1-7.
20. Wang T, Zhou R, Gao L, Wang Y, Song C, Gong Y, et al. Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: Correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test. Hypertension 2014;64:846-51.
21. Yilmaz Z, Yildirim T, Yilmaz R, Aybal-Kutlugun A, Altun B, Kucukozkan T, et al. Association between urinary angiotensinogen, hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women with preeclampsia. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2015;16:514-20.
22. Chava J, Harsini MY, Sandee K, Rao PC, Lakshmi CC. Comparision of efficacy and safety of oral labetalol and nifedipine in preeclampsia : A prospective observational study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:7-10.
23. Prakash J, Vohra R, Pandey LK, Niwas SS, Behura SK, Singh U, et al. Spectrum of kidney diseases in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia. J Assoc Physicians India 2010;58:543-6.
24. Bhide A, Rana R, Dhavilkar M, Amodio-Hernandez M, Deshpande D, Caric V, et al. The value of the urinary protein:creatinine ratio for the detection of significant proteinuria in women with suspected preeclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2015;94:542-6.
25. Sinha R, Bhushan I. Study of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (ccr) in a spot sample of urine for early prediction of preeclampsia. J Dent Med Sci 2016;15:101-4.
26. Elia EG, Robb AO, Hemming K, Price MJ, Riley RD, French-Constant A, et al. Is the first urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in women with suspected preeclampsia a prognostic factor for maternal and neonatal adverse outcome? A retrospective cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2017;96:580-8.
27. Sarno L, Maruotti GM, Saccone G, Sirico A, Mazzarelli LL, Martinelli P, et al. Pregnancy outcome in proteinuria-onset and hypertension-onset preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 2015;34:284-90.
28. Kaze FF, Njukeng FA, Kengne AP, Ashuntantang G, Mbu R, Halle MP, et al. Post-partum trend in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria in women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia in sub-saharan africa: A 6-months cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014;14:134.
29. Dong X, Gou W, Li C, Wu M, Han Z, Li X, et al. Proteinuria in preeclampsia: Not essential to diagnosis but related to disease severity and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy hypertens. Int J Women’s Cardiovasc Health 2017;8:60-4.
30. Tayyar AT, Tayyar A, Kozali S, Karakus R, Karakus S, Yuksel IT, et al. Maternal cytoglobin (CYGB) serum levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018;7:1-5.
31. Schmella MJ, Clifton RG, Althouse AD, Roberts JM. Uric acid determination in gestational hypertension: Is it as effective a delineator of risk as proteinuria in high-risk women? Reprod Sci 2015;22:1212-9.
32. Chen Q, Lau S, Tong M, Wei J, Shen F, Zhao J, et al. Serum uric acid may not be involved in the development of preeclampsia. J Hum Hypertens 2016;30:136-40.
33. Mohanty BP, Mahanty A, Mitra T. Heat shock proteins in stress in teleosts. Regul Heat Shock Protein Response 2018;13:71-94.
34. Li F, He M, Yang M, Fan Y, Chen Y, Xia X, et al. Alteration of heat shock protein 20 expression in preeclamptic patients and its effect in vascular and coagulation function. Front Med 2018; doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0576-x.
35. Shochet GE, Komemi O, Sadeh-Mestechkin D, Pomeranz M, Fishman A, Drucker L, et al. Heat shock protein-27 (HSP27) regulates STAT3 and eIF4G levels in first trimester human placenta. J Mol Histol 2016;47:555-63.
36. Dvorakova L, Ivankova K, Krofta L, Hromadnikova I. Expression profile of heat shock proteins in placental tissues of patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. Am J Reprod Immunol 2017;78:4.
37. Abdulsid A, Lyall F. Heat shock protein 27 expression is spatially distributed in human placenta and selectively regulated during preeclampsia. J Reprod Immunol 2014;101-102:89-95.
38. Saghafi N, Pourali L, Ghavami Ghanbarabadi V, Mirzamarjani F, Mirteimouri M. Serum heat shock protein 70 in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2018;16:1-8.
39. Honsawek S, Udomsinprasert W, Jirathanathornnukul N, Chongsrisawat V, Poovorawan Y. Elevated serum heat shock protein 70 and liver stiffness reflect hepatic dysfunction and severity in postoperative biliary atresia. Pediatr Surg Int 2017;33:893-9.
40. Lai H, Liu H. Expression and meaning analysis of HIF-1α and HSP70 in preeclamptic. Biomed Res 2018;29:1240-3.
41. Ozaydin T, Sur E, Oznurlu Y, Celik I, Uluisik D. Immunohistochemical distribution of heat shock protein 70 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse placenta at different gestational stages. Microscopy Res Tech 2016;257:251-7.
42. Radons J. The human HSP70 family of chaperones: Where do we stand? Cell Stress Chaperones 2016;21:379-404.
43. Garamvölgyi Z, Prohászka Z, Rigó J Jr. Kecskeméti A, Molvarec A. Increased circulating heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) levels in gestational diabetes mellitus: A pilot study. Cell Stress Chaperones 2015;20:575-81.
44. Hosseini A, Dolati S, Hashemi V, Yousefi MA. Regulatory T and T helper 17 cells : Their roles in preeclampsia. J Cell Physiol 2018;1:1-13.
45. Quinn KH, Lacoursiere DY, Cui L, Bui J, Parast MM. The unique pathophysiology of early-onset severe preeclampsia: Role of decidual T regulatory cells. J Reprod Immunol 2011;91:76-82.
46. Kong X, Kong Y, Zhang F, Wang T, Zhu X. Expression and significance of dendritic cells and th17/Treg in serum and placental tissues of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018;31:901-6.
47. Yang X, Zhang J, Ding Y. Association of microRNA-155, interleukin 17A, and proteinuria in preeclampsia. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017;96:e6509.
48. Lumbanraja SN, Junitasari R, Pasaribu HP. Differences of serum interleukin-6 levels in normotensive and preeclampsia women. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 2018;25:10-4.
49. Rojas E, Rodríguez-Molina D, Bolli P, Israili ZH, Faría J, Fidilio E, et al. The role of adiponectin in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep 2014;16:463.
50. Tejera E, Cruz-Monteagudo M, Burgos G, Sánchez ME, Sánchez-Rodríguez A, Pérez-Castillo Y, et al. Consensus strategy in genes prioritization and combined bioinformatics analysis for preeclampsia pathogenesis. BMC Med Genomics 2017;10:50.
51. Ziganshina MM, Sergunina OZ, Nikolaeva MA, Sukhikh GT. Antiendothelial cell antibodies as the tip of the iceberg : What is hidden underneath. Biol Bull Rev 2017;7:537-46.
52. Huebner H, Knoerr B, Betzler A, Hartner A, Kehl S, Baier F, et al. Detyrosinated tubulin is decreased in fetal vessels of preeclampsia placentas. Placenta 2018;62:58-65.
53. Li M, Piao L, Chen CP, Wu X, Yeh CC, Masch R, et al. Modulation of decidual macrophage polarization by macrophage colony-stimulating factor derived from first-trimester decidual cells: Implication in preeclampsia. Am J Pathol 2016;186:1258-66.
54. Hromadnikova I, Kotlabova K, Ondrackova M, Pirkova P, Kestlerova A, Novotna V, et al. Expression profile of C19MC microRNAs in placental tissue in pregnancy-related complications. DNA Cell Biol 2015;34:437 57.
55. El-sonbati AZ, El-baz RA, Saad EA, El-zekred AS. Vascular endothelial growth factor Vegf G/C 405 And C/A 2578 gene polymorphisms in cases with pre-eclampsia. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:6-9.
56. Roberts JM, Escudero C. The placenta in preeclampsia. Pregnancy Hypertens 2012;2:72-83.
57. Garrabou G, Hernàndez AS, Catalán García M, Morén C, Tobías E, Córdoba S, et al. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: Mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Addict Biol 2016;21:159-70.
58. Pramatirta AY, Bremmy L,Prima NF, Anita DA, Sofie RK, Debbie S, et al. Effects of low dose aspirin on caspase 3, tnf-α and apoptotic index levels in preclampsia maternal serum-induced placental trophoblast cell line in vitro. Int J PharmTech Res 2016;9:47-53.
59. Tomas SZ, Prusac IK, Roje D, Tadin I. Trophoblast apoptosis in placentas from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2011;71:250-5.
60. Afroze SH, Kalagiri RR, Reyes M, Zimmerman JD, Beeram MR, Drever N, et al. Apoptotic and stress signaling markers are augmented in preeclamptic placenta and umbilical cord. BBA Clin 2016;6:25-30.
61. Wang B, Koga K, Osuga Y, Hirata T, Saito A, Yoshino O, et al. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in the placenta and in serum in preeclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011;66:143-8.
62. D’Souza V, Rani A, Patil V, Pisal H, Randhir K, Mehendale S, et al. Increased oxidative stress from early pregnancy in women who develop preeclampsia. Clin Exp Hypertens 2016;38:225-32.
63. Bosco CB, Díaz EG, Gutierrez RR, González JM, Parra-Cordero M, Rodrigo RS, et al. Placental hypoxia developed during preeclampsia induces telocytes apoptosis in chorionic villi affecting the maternal-fetus metabolic exchange. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2016;11:420-5.
64. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Korkmaz A, Rosales-Corral SA. Melatonin and stable circadian rhythms optimize maternal, placental and fetal physiology. Hum Reprod Update 2014;20:293-307.
65. Can M, Guven B, Bektas S, Arikan I. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in preeclampsia. Tissue Cell 2014;46:477-81.
66. Du L, He F, Kuang L, Tang W, Li Y, Chen D, et al. ENOS/iNOS and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia. J Hum Hypertens 2017;31:49-55.
67. Prusac IK, Zekic Tomas S, Roje D. Apoptosis, proliferation and fas ligand expression in placental trophoblast from pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome or pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2011;90:1157-63.
68. Shen F, Wei J, Snowise S, DeSousa J, Stone P, Viall C, et al. Trophoblast debris extruded from preeclamptic placentae activates endothelial cells: A mechanism by which the placenta communicates with the maternal endothelium. Placenta 2014;35:839-47.
69. Güzel C, Ursem NT, Dekker LJ, Derkx P, Joore J, van Dijk E, et al. Multiple reaction monitoring assay for pre-eclampsia related calcyclin peptides in formalin fixed paraffin embedded placenta. J Proteome Res 2011;10:3274-82.
70. Longtine MS, Chen B, Odibo AO, Zhong Y, Nelson DM. Caspase-mediated apoptosis of trophoblasts in term human placental villi is restricted to cytotrophoblasts and absent from the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Reproduction 2012;143:107-21.
71. Zhou Y, Gormley MJ, Hunkapiller NM, Kapidzic M, Stolyarov Y, Feng V, et al. Reversal of gene dysregulation in cultured cytotrophoblasts reveals possible causes of preeclampsia. J Clin Invest 2013;123:2862 72.
72. Sankar KD, Bhanu PS, Kiran S, Ramakrishna BA, Shanthi V. Vasculosyncytial membrane in relation to syncytial knots complicates the placenta in preeclampsia: A histomorphometrical study. Anat Cell Biol 2012;45:86-91.
73. Ogunleye O, Campo B, Herrera D, Post Uiterweer ED, Conrad KP. Relaxin confers cytotrophoblast protection from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-akt/protein kinase B cell survival pathway. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2017;312:R559-R568.
74. Tannetta D, Masliukaite I, Vatish M, Redman C, Sargent I. Update of syncytiotrophoblast derived extracellular vesicles in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. J Reprod Immunol 2017;119:98-106.
75. Conrad KP, Stillman IE, Lindheimer MD. The Kidney in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia.4th ed. San Diego: Elsevier Inc.; 2015.
76. Cornelis T, Odutayo A, Keunen J, Hladunewich M. The kidney in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. Semin Nephrol 2011;31:4-14.
77. Tian X, Ma S, Wang Y, Hou L, Shi Y, Yao M, et al. Effects of placental ischemia are attenuated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D treatment and associated with reduced apoptosis and increased autophagy. DNA Cell Biol 2016;35:59-70.
78. Chen B, Tuuli MG, Longtine MS, Shin JS, Lawrence R, Inder T, et al. Pomegranate juice and punicalagin attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis in human placenta and in human placental trophoblasts. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012;302:E1142-52.
79. Kavitha V, Srinivas B, Mvln RK, Shashikanth P. Assessment Of placental oxidative stress parameters in pre-eclamptic and normal pregnant women. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:1, 1-5.
80. Prijanti AN, Nelly M, Reni P, Sarah H, Eldesta NN, Anthony EW, et al. Analysis of oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide, and prorenin level in preeclampsia placental tissues. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:1.
81. Guo M, Zhao X, Yuan X, Li P. Elevated microRNA-34a contributes to trophoblast cell apoptosis in preeclampsia by targeting BCL-2. J Hum Hypertens 2017;31:815-20.
82. Armant DR, Fritz R, Kilburn BA, Kim YM, Nien JK, Maihle NJ, et al. Reduced expression of the epidermal growth factor signaling system in preeclampsia. Placenta 2015;36:270-8.
83. Zhang Z, Zhang L, Zhang L, Jia L, Wang P, Gao Y, et al. Association of wnt2 and sFRP4 expression in the third trimester placenta in women with severe preeclampsia. Reprod Sci 2013;20:981-9.
84. X Li. Contents of Wnt/β -catenin signaling pathway-related molecules in the preeclampsia placenta tissue and their correlation with the trophocyte apoptosis. J Hainan Univ 2017;23:83-6.
85. Derzsy Z, Prohászka Z, Rigó J Jr. Füst G, Molvarec A. Activation of the complement system in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. Mol Immunol 2010;47:1500-6.
86. Gao Q, Zhu X, Chen J, Mao C, Zhang L, Xu Z, et al. Upregulation of P53 promoted G1 arrest and apoptosis in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells from preeclampsia. J Hypertens 2016;34:1380-8.
87. Tannetta D, Sargent I. Placental disease and the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia: Missing links? Curr Hypertens Rep 2013;15:590-9.
88. Yu L, Li D, Liao QP, Yang HX, Cao B, Fu G, et al. High levels of activin A detected in preeclamptic placenta induce trophoblast cell apoptosis by promoting nodal signaling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E1370-9.
89. Yu J, Guo X, Chen R, Feng L. Downregulation of mitofusin 2 in placenta is related to preeclampsia. Bio Med Res Int 2016;2016:8.
90. Vishnyakova PA, Maria AV, Nadezhda VT, Maria VM, Daria VT, Olga V, et al. Mitochondrial role in adaptive response to stress conditions in preeclampsia. Nat Publ Gr 2016;2016:1-9.
91. Yong HEJ, Murthi P, Brennecke SP, Moses EK. Genetic approaches in preeclampsia. Methods Mol Biol 2018;1710:53-72.
92. Muralimanoharan S, Maloyan A, Myatt L. Evidence of sexual dimorphism in the placental function with severe preeclampsia. Placenta 2013;34:1183-9.
93. Ma Y, Kong LR, Ge Q, Lu YY, Hong MN, Zhang Y, et al. Complement 5a-mediated trophoblasts dysfunction is involved in the development of pre-eclampsia. J Cell Mol Med 2018;22:1034-46.
94. Shi Z, Hou W, Hua X, Wang Z. Overexpression of calreticulin in pre-eclampsia. Cell Biochem Biophys 2012;63:183-9.
95. Guller S, Tang Z, Ma YY, Di Santo S, Sager R, Schneider H, et al. Protein composition of microparticles shed from human placenta during placental perfusion: Potential role in angiogenesis and fibrinolysis in preeclampsia. Placenta 2011;32:63-9.
96. Baig S, Kothandaraman N, Manikandan J, Rong L, Ee KH, Hill J, et al. Proteomic analysis of human placental syncytiotrophoblast microvesicles in preeclampsia. Clin Proteomics 2014;11:40.
97. Wang W, Parchim NF, Iriyama T, Luo R, Zhao C, Liu C, et al. Excess LIGHT contributes to placental impairment, increased secretion of vasoactive factors, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia. Hypertension 2014;63:595-606.
98. Mayor-Lynn K, Toloubeydokhti T, Cruz AC, Chegini N. Expression profile of microRNAs and mRNAs in human placentas from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and preterm labor. Reprod Sci 2011;18:46-56.
99. Enquobahrie DA, Abetew DF, Sorensen TK, Willoughby D, Chidambaram K, Williams MA, et al. Placental microRNA expression in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:178.e12-21.
100.Muralimanoharan S, Maloyan A, Mele J, Guo C, Myatt LG, Myatt L, et al. MIR-210 modulates mitochondrial respiration in placenta with preeclampsia. Placenta 2012;33:816-23.
101.Wang W, Feng L, Zhang H, Hachy S, Satohisa S, Laurent LC, et al. Preeclampsia up-regulates angiogenesis-associated microRNA (i.e. miR-17, -20a, and -20b) that target ephrin-B2 and EPHB4 in human placenta. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E1051-9.
102.Bremer L, Schramm C, Tiegs G. Immunology of hepatic diseases during pregnancy. Semin Immunopathol 2016;38:669-85.
103.Tsai HM, Kuo E. From gestational hypertension and preeclampsia to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2016;127:907 10.
104.Panda R, Mondal H. Liver and kidney function tests in elderly gravidae presenting with preeclampsia. Adv Human Biol 2018;8:88-90.
105.Frank Wolf M, Peleg D, Kariv Silberstein N, Assy N, Djibre A, Ben-Shachar I, et al. Correlation between changes in liver stiffness and preeclampsia as shown by transient elastography. Hypertens Pregnancy 2016;35:536-41.
106.Outcome F, Obstetric A, With P, Liver D, Tests F. Maternal and fetal outcome among obstetric patients. ??? 2014;3:14493-501.
107.Mishra N, Mishra VN, Thakur P. Study of abnormal liver function test during pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital in chhattisgarh. J Obstet Gynaecol India 2016;66:129-35.
108.Korkes HA, De Oliveira L, Sass N, Salahuddin S, Karumanchi SA, Rajakumar A, et al. Relationship between hypoxia and downstream pathogenic pathways in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 2017;36:145-50.
109.Han YW, Yang Z, Ding XY, Yu H. Differences in liver injury and trophoblastic mitochondrial damage in different preeclampsia-like mouse models. Chin Med J (Engl) 2015;128:1627-35.
110. León-Reyes G, Maida-Claros RF, Urrutia-Medina AX, Jorge-Galarza E, Guzmán-Grenfell AM, Fuentes-García S, et al. Oxidative profiles of LDL and HDL isolated from women with preeclampsia. Lipids Health Dis 2017;16:90.
111. Haque MM, Moghal MM, Sarwar MS, Anonna SN, Akter M, Karmakar P, et al. Low serum selenium concentration is associated with preeclampsia in pregnant women from bangladesh. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2016;33:21-5.
112. Ilyas S, Hutahaean S, dan Irianti E. Transforming growth factor expression (TGF-β) correlate with serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) after EVOO administration in preclinical rat models of preeclampsia. IOP Conf. Ser: Earth Environ. Sci. 130 012048; 2018.
113. Cho GJ, Kim HY, Park JH, Ahn KH, Hong SC, Oh MJ, et al. Prepregnancy liver enzyme levels and risk of preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy: A population-based cohort study. Liver Int 2018;38:949-54.
114. Erianti E, Ilyas S, Hutahaean S. HSP70 expression profile in preeclampsia model of pregnant rat (Rattus norvegicus) after giving the EVOO. IOP Publ 2017;180:1.
115. Ekiz A, Kaya B, Avci ME, Polat I, Dikmen S, Yildirim G, et al. Alanine aminotransferase as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Pak J Med Sci 2016;32:418 22.
116. Cetin O, Karaman E, Arslan H, Kolusarı A, Yıldızhan R, Ozgokce M, et al. Evaluation of maternal liver elasticity by acoustic radiation force impulse elastosonography in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A preliminary descriptive study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017;30:2281-6.
117. Uzunlar O, Engin-Ustun Y, Ozyer S, Danısman N, Candar T, Keskin SM, et al. Is there an association between liver type fatty acid binding protein and severity of preeclampsia? Arch Gynecol Obstet 2015;291:1069-74.
118. Karakus S, Bozoklu Akkar O, Yildiz C, Sancakdar E, Cetin M, Cetin A, et al. Serum levels of ET-1, M30, and angiopoietins-1 and -2 in HELLP syndrome and preeclampsia compared to controls. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016;293:351-9.
119. Mohamed S, Abdelgadir N, Eldeen N, Mohammed A. Estimation of plasma d-dimer levels in sudanese women with preeclampsia. Sci Res 2017;4:1-6.
120.Jonas H. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy in women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Int 2015;10:1-7.
121.Meng J, Wang S, Gu Y, Lv H, Jiang J, Wang X, et al. Prenatal predictors in postpartum recovery for acute fatty liver of pregnancy: Experiences at a tertiary referral center. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016;293:1185-91.
122.Qu BG, Wang H, Jia YG, Su JL, Wang ZD, Wang YF, et al. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-α, heat shock protein 70, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase in patients with different severities of alcoholic fatty liver disease: A prospective observational study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015;94:e643.
123.Wikström Shemer EA, Stephansson O, Thuresson M, Thorsell M, Ludvigsson JF, Marschall HU, et al. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and cancer, immune-mediated and cardiovascular diseases: A population-based cohort study. J Hepatol 2015;63:456-61.
124.Solanke D, Rathi C, Pandey V, Patil M, Phadke A, Sawant P, et al. Etiology, clinical profile, and outcome of liver disease in pregnancy with predictors of maternal mortality: A prospective study from western india. Indian J Gastroenterol 2016;35:450-8.
125.Wilder J, Chang S, Cardona D, Patel K, Brady C.Acute liver failure in the setting of herpes simplex virus and coexistent acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Case Reports Clin Pathol 2015;2:89-94.
126.Puljic A, Salati J, Doss A, Caughey AB. Outcomes of pregnancies complicated by liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016;29:506-9.
127.Tang YM, Wang JP, Bao WM, Yang JH, Ma LK, Yang J, et al. Urine and serum metabolomic profiling reveals that bile acids and carnitine may be potential biomarkers of primary biliary cirrhosis. Int J Mol Med 2015;36:377-85.
128.Yoshihara M, Mayama M, Ukai M, Tano S, Kishigami Y, Oguchi H, et al. Fulminant liver failure resulting from massive hepatic infarction associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2016;42:1375-8.
129.Women in Hepatology Group, Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF). AISF position paper on liver transplantation and pregnancy: Women in hepatology group, italian association for the study of the liver (AISF). Dig Liver Dis 2016;48:860-8.
130.Lopes van Balen VA, Spaan JJ, Cornelis T, Spaanderman MEA. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease after preeclampsia. J Nephrol 2017;30:403-9.
131.Turner RJ, Bloemenkamp KW, Penning ME, Bruijn JA, Baelde HJ. From glomerular endothelium to podocyte pathobiology in preeclampsia: A Paradigm shift. Curr Hypertens Rep 2015;17:54.
132.Wang Y, Zhao S, Loyd S, Groome LJ. Increased urinary excretion of nephrin, podocalyxin, and βig-h3 in women with preeclampsia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2012;302:F1084-9.
133.Furuta I, Zhai T, Ishikawa S, Umazume T, Nakagawa K, Yamada T, et al. Association between nephrinuria, podocyturia, and proteinuria in women with pre-eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017;43:34-41.
134.Bruggeman LA, Wu Z, Luo L, Madhavan SM, Konieczkowski M, Drawz PE, et al. APOL1-G0 or APOL1-G2 transgenic models develop preeclampsia but not kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2016;27:3600 10.
135.Unverdi S, Ceri M, Unverdi H, Yilmaz R, Akcay A, Duranay M. Postpartum persistent proteinuria after preeclampsia : A single-center experience. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2013;125:91-5.
136.Al-hakeim HK, Ali R, Ali M. Proteinuria as the most relevant parameter affecting fetuin-a levels in preeclampsia. Acta Fac Med Naissensis 2015;32:267-77.
137.Piccoli GB, Cabiddu G, Castellino S, Gernone G, Santoro D, Moroni G, et al. A best practice position statement on the role of the nephrologist in the prevention and follow-up of preeclampsia: The italian study group on kidney and pregnancy. J Nephrol 2017;30:307-17.
138.Duvekot JJ. Re: Maternal venous doppler characteristics are abnrmal in pre-eclampsia but not in gestational hypertension. W. Gyselaers, A. Staelens, T. Mesens, K. Tomsin, J. Oben, S. Vonck, L. Verresen and G. Molenberghs. Ultrasound obstet gynecol 2015; 45: 421-426. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;45:374-5.
139.Masuyama H, Nobumoto E, Okimoto N, Inoue S, Segawa T, Hiramatsu Y, et al. Superimposed preeclampsia in women with chronic kidney disease. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2012;74:274-81.
140.Wielgos M, Szpotanska-Sikorska M, Mazanowska N, Bomba-Opon D, Kociszewska-Najman B, Jabiry-Zieniewicz Z, et al. Pregnancy risk in female kidney and liver recipients: A retrospective comparative study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25:1090-5.
141.Garg AX, Nevis IF, McArthur E, Sontrop JM, Koval JJ, Lam NN, et al. Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia in living kidney donors. N Engl J Med 2015;372:124-33.
142.Siribamrungwong M, Chinudomwong P. Relation between acute kidny injury and pregnancy-related factors. J Acute Dis 2016;5:22-8.
143.Nielsen LH, Jensen BL, Fuglsang J, Andersen LLT, Jensen DM, Jørgnsen JS, et al. Urine albumin is a superior predictor of preeclampsia compared to urine plasminogen in type I diabetes patients. J Am Soc Hypertens 2018;12:97-107.
144.Simonazzi G, Capelli I, Curti A, Comai G, Rizzo N, La Manna G, et al. Serum and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin monitoring in normal pregnancy versus pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. In Vivo 2015;29:117-21.
145.Ding W, Wang B, Zhang M, Gu Y. Tempol, a superoxide dismutase- mimetic drug, ameliorates progression of renal disease in CKD mice. Cell Physiol Biochem 2015;36:2170-82.
146.Attini R, Leone F, Montersino B, Fassio F, Minelli F, Colla L, et al. Pregnancy, proteinuria, plant-based supplemented diets and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A Report on three cases and critical appraisal of the literature. Nutrient 2017;9(7).
147.Zhang Y, Zhao C, Wei Y, Yang S, Cui C, Yang J, et al. Increased circulating microparticles in women with preeclampsia. Int J Lab Hematol 2018;40:352-8.
148.Codsi E, Garovic VD, Gonzalez-Suarez ML, Milic N, Borowski KS, Rose CH, et al. Longitudinal characterization of renal proximal tubular markers in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2017;312:R773-R778.
149.Wang Y, Gu Y, Loyd S, Jia X, Groome LJ. Increased urinary levels of podocyte glycoproteins, matrix metallopeptidases, inflammatory cytokines, and kidney injury biomarkers in women with preeclampsia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2015;309:F1009-17.
150.Rolfo A, Parisi S, Ferraresi M, Todros T, Giorgina B. Chronic kidney disease may be differentially diagnosed from preeclampsia by serum biomarkers. Kidney Int 2012;83:177-81.
151.Xiao J, Niu J, Ye X, Yu Q, Gu Y. Combined biomarkers evaluation for diagnosing kidney injury in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 2013;32:439-49.
152.Zhang Y, Liu F, Chen S, Zhong M. Low-molecular-weight heparin protects kidney through an anti-apoptotic mechanism in a rat pre-eclamptic model. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2015;188:51-5.
153.Liu W, Qiao F, Liu H, Gong X, Shi X, Li Y, et al. Low molecular weight heparin improves proteinuria in rats with L-NAME induced preeclampsia by decreasing the expression of nephrin, but not podocin. Hypertens Pregnancy 2015;34:24-35.
154.He J, Lu Y, Xia H, Liang Y, Wang X, Bao W, et al. Circulating mitochondrial DAMPs are not effective inducers of proteinuria and kidney injury in rodents. PLoS One 2015;10:e0124469.
158 Views | 234 Downloads
How to Cite
Situmorang, P. C., and S. Ilyas. “STUDY OF PREECLAMPSIA IN PLACENTA, KIDNEY, AND HEPATIC DISEASES”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 11, no. 11, Nov. 2018, pp. 21-28, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i11.27540.
Review Article(s)