• SUMAN JAIN Department of Biochemistry, Pacific Institute of Medical Sciences, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
  • PRERNA BANSAL Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Bhilwara, Rajasthan, India.
  • RAJNEESH PRAJAPAT Department of Biochemistry, Pacific Institute of Medical Sciences, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
  • HARSHDEEP JADEJA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pacific Institute of Medical Sciences, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.




Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Phosphorus, Vitamin D3, Vitamin B12, Cord blood


Objective: Vitamins and minerals collectively referred to as micronutrients have important influence on the health of pregnant women and the growing fetus. Pregnancy is related to increase demand of all nutrients and deficiency any of these can affect pregnancy, delivery, and outcome of pregnancy. Disorders in mineral element nutrition and metabolism can lead to wide variety of malformations. Data on mineral values in newborn are very less in contrast to adult. The present study was planned to analyze some of minerals in the umbilical cord blood of rural and urban population and compare them gender wise.

Methods: Our study group consisted of 640 healthy term newborn. The cord blood was collected immediately after a normal delivery. The blood was tested to determine calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P), Iron (Fe), Vitamins D3, and Vitamin B12.

Results: The results showed that the levels of Ca, Mg, P and Fe, Vitamin D3, and Vitamin B12 were higher in urban population than rural ones. All were statistically significant. The levels of Mg, P, Fe, and Vitamin B12 were lower in female urban neonates as compared to male urban neonates. All were significant when compared sex wise. The trend was same with increased levels of Mg, P, Fe, and Vitamin B12 in females of rural population than cord blood of male rural neonates.

Conclusions: The result showed that rural and urban population also female and male neonates have genetic variation and difference in mineral metabolism.


Download data is not yet available.


Black RE. Micronutrients in pregnancy. Br J Nutr 2001;85:193S-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2000314

Naeye R, Blanc W, Paul C. Affects of maternal nutrition on human fetus. Pediatrics 1973;52:494-503. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.52.4.494

McMillan GC. Development of atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol 1973;31:542-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(73)90321-4

World Health Organization. The Prevalence of Anemia in Women: A Tabulation of Available Information. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.

Jain S, Gupta AP. Evaluation of some minerals in cord blood from tribal and nontribal population of Udaipur region. Int J Res Med Sci 2016;4:495-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20160303

Deshpande N, Patil L, Despande S, Chavan S. Study of ionic calcium in maternal and cord blood and baby’s blood at 48-h age. Med J Dy Patil Univ 2014;7:152-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-2870.126321

Bastida S, Vaquero MP, Veldhuizen M, Sanchez-Muniz FJ. Selected trace elements and minerals in cord blood: Association with lipids and lipoproteins at birth. Acta Paediatr 2000;89:1201-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2000.tb00736.x

Wu AH. Teitz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2006. p. 202-7.

Mann CK, Yoe JH. Spectophotometric determination of magnesium with 1-azo-2 hydroxy-3-(2,4-dimethy carboannilido)-naphalene-1’-(2- hydroxy- benzene-5- sulphonate). Anal Chem 1956;28:202-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60110a016

Tietz NW, Rinker AD, Morrison SR. When is a serum iron really a serum iron? A follow up study on the status of iron measurements in serum. Clin Chem 1996;42:109-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/42.1.109

Henry R. Clinical Chemistry: Principles and Technics. 2nded. New York: Harper and Row; 1974. p. 723.

Jaime-Perez JC, Gomez-Almaguer D. Iron stores in low-income pregnant Mexican women at term. Arch Med Res 2002;33:81-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0188-4409(01)00346-0

Lechtig A. Effects of maternal nutrition on infant health. Implication for action. Nutr Plann 1980;3:1-13.

Jacobson HN. Weight and weight gain in pregnancy. In: Barness LA, PitKin RM, editors. Clinics in Perinatology. Philadelphia, PA: W B Saunders; 1975. p. 233-6.

Pac-Kozuchowska E. The concentration of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in cord blood serum of newborns on the course of intrauterine period. Ann UMCS Sec D 2003;2:25-32.

Bastida S, Sanchez-Muniz FJ, Cuesta C, Perea S, Aragones A. male and female cord blood lipoprotein profile differences throughout the term-period. J Perinat Med 1997;25:184-91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpme.1997.25.2.184

Anderson GE. Changes in plasma lipoprotein from first day to third week of human life. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985;188:87-91.

Hardell L. Serum lipids and lipoproteins at birth based on a study of 2815 newborn infants. Concentrations and distributions of triglycerides and cholesterol. Acta Pediatr Scan Suppl 1981;285:5-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1981.tb15876.x

Pac-Kozuchowska E. Evaluation of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins concentration in cord blood serum of newborns from rural and urban environments. Ann Agric Environ Med 2007;14:25-9.



How to Cite

JAIN, S., P. BANSAL, R. PRAJAPAT, and H. JADEJA. “EVALUATION OF SOME MINERALS AND VITAMINS IN CORD BLOOD FROM RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION OF UDAIPUR REGION”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 7, June 2021, pp. 90-92, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i7.41909.



Original Article(s)