• Rajeshkumar S Asst Professor
  • Kayalvizhi D APCAS


objectives: A lot of herbal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of liver diseases. Methods: This present investigation
was aimed to assess the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanol extract of Pongamia pinnata leaves against acetaminophen-induced liver
damage in albino rats. Silymarin as a standard drug for comparing the activity. The activity was assessed by comparing the biochemical parameters
in serum levels such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase of
plant extracts treated group with acetaminophen treated animals. Results: Results showed, ethanolic extract treated group showed highly significant
activity (p<0.001), whereas aqueous extract treated group has shown the significant (p<0.01) action but less compared with ethanolic extract. Plant
extracts restores biochemical enzymes and brings down to normal as compared to standard drug silymarin. Conclusion: This results shows and
confirms the significant protective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: Hepatotoxicity, Antioxidant, Acetaminophen, Pongamia pinnata, Herbal plants.

Author Biography

Rajeshkumar S, Asst Professor

Assistant Professor

PG and Research Department of Biochemistry,



Nevin K G, Vijayammal P L, Effect of Aerva lanata against hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in rats, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2005, 20, 471-477.

Manokaran S, Jaswanth A, Sengottuvelu S, Nandhakumar J, Duraisamy R, Karthikeyan D, Mallegaswari R, Hepatoprotective Activity of Aerva lanata Linn. Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats, Research J. Pharm. and Tech, 2008, 1, 398-400.

Song-Chow Lin, Yun-Ho Lin, Shyh-Jong Shyuu, Chung- Ching Lin. Hepatoprotective effects of Taiwan folk medicine: Alternanthera sessilis on liver damage induced by various hepatotoxins, Phytotherapy Research, 1994,8, 391-398.

Zeashan H, Amresh G, Singh S, Rao CV. Hepatoprotective activityof amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals, Food Chem Toxocol, 2008, 46, 3417-21.

Sheikh Yaeesh, Qamar Jamal, Khan Arif-ullah, Gilani Anwarul Hassan, Studies on hepatoprotective, antispasmodic and calcium antagonist activities of the aqueous-methanol extract of Achillea millefolium, Phytotherapy Research, 2006, 20, 546-551.

Rusu MA, Tamas M, Puica C, Roman Ioana, Sabadas Mihaela, The hepatoprotective action of ten herbal extracts in CCl4 intoxicated liver, Phytotherapy Research, 2005, 19, 744-749.

Singh B, Saxena AK, Chandan BK, Agarwal SG, Bhatia MS, Anand KK, Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba on experimental liver damage in rats and mice, Phytotherapy Research, 1993, 7, 154-158.

Song-chow Lin, Chih-jung Yao, Chun-ching Lin, Yun-ho Lin, Hepatoprotective Activity of Taiwan Folk Medicine: Eclipta prostrata Linn. against Various Hepatotoxins Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity Phytotherapy Research, 1996, 10, 483-490.

Singh A, Malhotra S, Subban R, Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) - Hepatoprotective Herb with Therapeutic Potential, Pharmacognosy Reviews, 2, 2008, 163-167.

Song-Chow Lin, Chao-Wei Teng, Chun-Ching Lin, Yun-Ho Lin, Supriyatna S, Protective and Therapeutic Effect of the Indonesian Medicinal Herb Curcuma xanthorrhiza on beta-D-Galactosamine induced Liver Damage, Phytotherapy Research, 1996, 10, 131-135.

Yemitan OK, Izegbu MC, Protective effects of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Phytotherapy Research, 20, 2006, 997-1002.

Setty SR, Quereshi AA, Viswanath Swamy AHM, Patil T, Prakash T, Prabhu K, Veeran Gouda A, Hepatoprotectiveactivity of Calotropis procera flowers againstparacetamolinduced hepatic injury in rats, Fitoterapia, 2007, 78, 451-454.

Srivastava Anup, Shivanandappa T, Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats, Hepatology Research, 2006, 35, 267-275.

Sureshkumar SV, Misra SH, Hepatoprotective activity of extracts from Pergularia daemia, Phcog Mag, 3, 2007, 187-191.

Sethuraman MG, Lelitha KG, Kapur BR, Hepatoprotective activity of Sarcostemma brevistigma against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats, Current science, 84, 2003, 1186-87.

Hewawasam RP, Jayatilaka KAPW, Pathirana C, Mudduwa LKB, Hepatoprotective effect of Epaltes divaricata extract on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in mice, Indian J Med Res, 2004, 120, 30-34.

Sen T, Basu A, Ray RN, Chaudhuri AKN, Hepatoprotective effects of Pluchea indica (less) extract in experimental acute liver damage in rodents, Phytotherapy Research, 1993, 7, 352-355.

Vilwanathan RK, Subramanian S, Thiruvengadam D, Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against dgalactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101, 2005, 55-60.

Tasduq SA, Kaisar P, Gupta DK, Kapahi BK, Jyotsna S, Maheshwari HS, Johri RK, Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver toxicity, Phytotherapy Research, 2005. 19, 193-197. Sharma Ambika, Sharma Mukesh Kumar, Kumar Madhu, Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice, Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2009, 180, 20-30.

Pramyothin Pornpen, Samosorn Patcharavadee, Poungshompoo Somlak, Chaichantipyuth Chaiyo, The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 107, 2006, 361-364.

Prakash, Satyan KS, Wahi SP, Singh RP, Comparative hepatoprotective activity of three Phyllanthus species, P.urinaria, P. niruri and P. simplex, on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in the rat, Phytotherapy Research, 9,1995, 594-96.

Toyin YF, Stephen MS, Michael AF, Udoka EO, Hepatoprotective potentials of Phyllanthus amarus against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats, 46, Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008, 2658-2664.

Sadasivan Sini, Latha PG, Sasikumar JM, Rajashekaran S, Shyamal S, Shine VJ, Hepatoprotective studies on Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006, 106, Issue 2, 245-249.

Gilani AH, Khalid HJ. Effect of Rubia cordifolia extract on acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, Phytotherapy Research, 9 1995, 372-375.

Mukul K Gole, Dasgupta S. Role of plant metabolites in toxic liver injury, Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002, 11, 48-50.

Sang Tae Kim, Jung Do Kim, Seung Hee Ahn, Gu Seok Ahn, Young Ik Lee, Yoong Seok Jeong, Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Alnus japonica extracts on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Phytotherapy Research. 2004, 18, 971-975.

Chun-Ching Lin, Pei-Chen Huang, Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Acathopanax senticosus. PhytotherapyResearch, 2000, 14, 489-494.

Roome T, Dar A, Ali S, Naqvi S, Choudhary MI, A study on antioxidant,free radical scavenging,antiinflamatory &hepatoprotective actions of Aegiceras corniculatum (stem) extracts, J.Ethnopharmacol, 2008, 118, 514-21.

Chandan BK, Sharma AK, Anand KK, Boerhavia diffusa: a study of its hepatoprotective activity, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2007, 111, 560-566.

Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert, Irena Matławska, Wiesława Bylka, Marek Murias, Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris L. on aflatoxin B1-induced hepatic damage in rats, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2006, 22,58-63.

Gilani AH, Khalid H J, Preventive and curative effects of Berberis aristata Fruit extract on paracetamol- and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, Phytotherapy Research, 1995, 9, 489-494.

Chandan BK, Sharma AK, Anand KK, Boerhavia diffusa: a study of its hepatoprotective activity, J Ethnopharmacol, 1991, 31, 299-307. Dahanukar SA, Kulkarni RA, Rege NN. Pharmacology of medicinal plants & natural product, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2000, 32, S81-S118.

Agarwal M, Srivastava VK, Saxena KK, Kumar A, Hepatoprotective activity of Beta vulgaris against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats, Fitoterapia, 2006, 77, 91-93.

Chia-Pu Lee, Ping-Hsiao Shih, Chin-Lin Hsu, Gow-Chin Yen, Hepatoprotection of tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2007, 45, 888-895.

Balasubramaniam P, Pari L, Menon VP, Protective effect of carrot (Daucus carota L.) against lindane – induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Phytotherapy Research, 1998, 12, 434-436.

Rao KS, Mishra SH, Hepatoprotective activity of the whole plants of Fumaria indica, I.J of P’ceutical science, 1997,59, 165-170.

Gomes A, Das M, Sur P, Besra SE, Chakravorty AK, Das B, Ganguly DK, Vedasiromoni JK, Glycosmis arborea extract as a hepatoprotective agent, Phytotherapy Research, 2003, 17, 571-574.

Yanling Shi, Jie Sun, Hui He, Hui Guo, Sheng Zhang, Hepatoprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum peptides against d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2008, 117, 415-419.

Ozturk Y, Aydin S, Baser KHC, Kirimer N, Kurtar-Ozturk Hepatoprotective activity of Hypericum perforatum L. alcoholic extract in rodents, Phytotherapy Research, 1992,6, 44-46.

Willis PJ, Asha VV, Protective effect of Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw. extract against carbontetrachlorideinduced acute liver injury in rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006, 108, 320-326. Willis PJ, Asha VV, Protective effect of Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw. (Lygodiaceae) against d-galactosamine induced liver injury in rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006, 108, 116-123.

Fakurazi S, Hairuszah I, Nanthini U, Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2008, 46, 2611-2615.

Asha VV. Short communication: Preliminary studies on the hepatoprotective activity of Mamordica subangulata & Naragamia alata, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2001,33, 276-279.

Dhanabal SP, Syamala G, Kumar SMN, Suresh B, Hepatoprotective activity of the indian medicinal plant Polygala arvensis on D-galactosamine-induced hepatic injury in rats, Fitoterapia, 77, 2006, 472-474.

Manjunatha BK, Hepatoprotective activity of Pterocarpus santalinis L.f, an endangered plant, Indian journal of P’cology, 38, 2006, 25-28.

Asha VV, Sheeba MS, Suresh V, Wills PJ, Hepatoprotection of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis against experimentally induced liver injury in rats, Fitoterapia, 78, 2007, 134-141.

Lone IA, Kaur G, Athar M, Alam MS, Protective effect of Rumex patientia (English Spinach ) root on ferric nitrilotriacetate(Fe-NTA) induced hepatic oxidative stress & tumor promotion response, Food & Chem Toxicol, 45,2007, 1821-9.

Ali AH, Bashir AK, Rasheed RA, Effect of the traditional medicinal plants Rhazya stricta, Balanitis aegyptiaca and Haplophylum tuberculatum on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, Phytotherapy Research, 15, 2001,598-603.

Sanmugapriya E, Venkataraman S, Studies on hepatoprotective and antioxidant actions of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in experimental rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 105, 2006, 154-160.

Karan M, Vasisht K, Handa SS, Antihepatotoxic activity of Swertia chirata on paracetamol and galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Phytotherapy Research, 13, 1999, 95-101.

Song YH, Liu Q, Lv ZP, Chen YY, Zhou YC, Sun XG, protection of a polysaccharide from Salvia miltiorrhiza,a Chinese medicinal herb ,against immunological liver mice, Int J Biol Macromol, 43, 2008, 170-5.

Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC, Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna prevents carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and renal disorders, BMC Complement Altern Med, 6, 2006,33.

Mandal A, Bishayee A, Chatterjee M, Trianthema portulacastrum affords antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver damage in mice: reflection in subcellular levels, Phytotherapy Research, 11, 1997, 216-221.

Orhan DD, Orhan N, Ergun E, Ergun F, Hepatoprotective effect of Vitis vinifera L. leaves on carbon tetrachlorideinduced acute liver damage in rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112, 2007, 145-151.

Manjunatha BK, Vidya SM, Hepatoprotective activity of vitex trifolia against CCl4 – induced hepatic damage, Indian J. P’ceutical science, 70, 2008, 241-245.

Montilla MP, Cabo J, Navarro MC, Risco S, Jimenez J, Aneiros J, The protective and curative action of Withania frutescens leaf extract against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, Phytotherapy Research, 4, 1990, 212-215.

Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J BiochemBiophys 1984; 21:130-2.

Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 1972; 47:389-94.

Okawa M, Kinjo J, Nohara T, Ono M. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of flavonoids obtained from some medicinal plants. Biol Pharm Bull 2001; 24:1202-5.



How to Cite




Original Article(s)