PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POROUS HYDROXYAPATITE AND ALGINATE COMPOSITE SCAFFOLDS FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING
Objective: To prepare and characterize composite scaffolds of a hydroxyapatite (HA) and an alginate having high viscosity.
Materials and Methods: HA powder was synthesized using wet chemical precipitation, the alginate powder was extracted from the Sargassum duplicatum seaweed, and the HA/alginate composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques were utilized to characterize the HA and alginate, and electron microscopy was used to evaluate the HA and the HA/alginate composite scaffolds. The HA/alginate composite scaffold obtained from the commercially available HA and alginate powders were employed as a comparison.
Results: Synthesized HAs were identified as the HA phase, which contained absorbed water, phosphate, and carbonate groups. The extracted alginate contained the carboxyl, cyclic ether and hydroxyl groups. The scaffolds prepared from the HA and alginate mixture were three-dimensional and containing interconnected pores with a diameter ranging from 150 to 300Â Âµm and pore walls of a composite construction.Conclusion: AÂ three-dimensional scaffold was produced using a freeze-drying method from a composite of HA and the high viscosity alginate solution. The scaffold was highly porous and showed interconnected pores, with a diameter ranging from 150 to 300Â Âµm.
2. Payne KF, Balasundaram I, Debc S, Silvio LD, Fan KF. Tissue engineering technology and its possible applications in oral and maxilla facial surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014;52:7-15.
3. Neel EA, Chrzanowski W, Salih VM, Kim HW, Knowles JC. Tissue engineering in dentistry. J Dent 2014;42:915-28.
4. Pilipchukb SP, Plonkaa AB, Monjea A, Tauta AD, Lanisa A, Kanga B. Tissue engineering for bone regeneration and osseointegration in the oral cavity. Dent Mater 2015;31:317-38.
5. Oâ€™Brien FJ. Biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Marer Today 2011;14:88-95.
6. Wang P, Zhao L, Liu J, Weir MD, Zhou X, Xu HH. Bone tissue engineering via nanostructured calcium phosphate biomaterials and stem cells. Bone Res 2014;2:14017.
7. Sanz AR, CarriÃ³n FS, Chaparro AP. Mesenchymal stem cells from the oral cavity and their potential value in tissue engineering. Periodontol 2000 2015;67:251-67.
8. Ghoraishizadeh S, Ghorishizadeh A, Ghoraishizadeh P, Daneshvar N, Boroojerdi MH. Application of nano-scaffolds in mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy. Adv Regen Med 2014;20:369-98.
9. Rai S, Kaur M, Kaur S. Applications of stem cells in interdisciplinary dentistry and beyond: An overview. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2013;3:245-54.
10. Currey JD. Bones: Structure and Mechanics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2002.
11. Lett JA, Sundareswari M, Ravichandran K. Porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for orthopedic and dental applications-the role of binders. Mater Today Proc 2016;3:1672-7.
12. Kumar A, Negi YS, Choudhary V, Bhardwaj NK. Microstructural and mechanical properties of porous biocomposite scaffolds based on polyvinyl alcohol, nano-hydroxyapatite and cellulose nanocrystals. Cellulose 2014;21:3409-26.
13. Cholas R, Padmanabhan SK, Gervaso F, Udayan G, Monaco G, Sannino A, et al. Scaffolds for bone regeneration made of hydroxyapatite microspheres in a collagen matrix. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016;63:499-505.
14. Islam S, Todo M. Effects of properties of collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater Lett 2016;173:231-4.
15. Ghorbani F, Nojehdehian H, Zamanian A. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of freeze cast hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffolds with dexamethasone loaded PLGA microspheres for hard tissue engineering applications. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016;69:208-20.
16. Rogina A, Rico P, Ferrer GG, IvankoviÄ‡ M, IvankoviÄ‡ H. Effect of in situ formed hydroxyapatite on microstructure of freeze-gelled chitosan-based bio-composite scaffolds. Eur Polym J 2015;68:278-87.
17. Shaji J, Shaikh M. Formulation, optimization, and characterization of biocompatible inhalable D-cycloserine-loaded alginate-chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary drug delivery. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:82-95.
18. Sailaja AK, Amareshwar P. Preparation of alginate nanoparticles by desolvation technique using acetone as desolvating agent. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:132-4.
19. Han J, Zhou Z, Yin R, Yang D, Nie J. Alginate-chitosan/hydroxyapatite polyelectrolyte complex porous scaffolds: Preparation and characterization. Int J Biol Macromol 2010;46:199-205.
20. Kim HL, Jung GY, Yoon JH, Han JS, Park YJ, Kim DG, et al. Preparation and characterization of nano-sized hydroxyapatite/alginate/chitosan composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2015;54:20-5.
21. Hu Y, Ma S, Yang Z, Zhou W, Du Z, Huang J, et al. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2016;140:382-91.
22. Nazarpak MH, Pourasgari F. Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffold from hydroxyapatite/alginate composite. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinform 2014;4:142-5.
23. Parthiban C, Parameswari K, Saranya C, Hemalatha A, Anantharaman P. Production of sodium alginate from selected seaweeds and their physiochemical and biochemical properties. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;1:1-4.
24. Chee SY, Wong PK, Wong CL. Extraction and characterization of alginate from brown seaweed (Fucales, Phaeophyciae) collected from Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 2011;23:191-6.
25. Rhein-Knudsen N, Ale MT, Ajalloueian F, Meyer AS. Characterization of alginates from Ghanaian brown seaweeds: Sargassum spp and Padina spp. Food Hydrocoll 2017;71:236-44.
26. Ramesh K, Krishnapriya M, Paul A, Nair SC. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan sodium alginate carbamazepine microspheres. Asian J Pharm Res 2017;10:271-6.
27. Sharma M, Choudhury P, Dev SK. Formulation and in-vitro-in-vivo evaluation of alginate-chitosan microspheres of glipizide by ionic gelation method. Asian J Pharm Res 2017;10:385-90.
28. Wouthuyzen S, Herandarudewi SM, Komatsu T. Stock assessment of brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae) along the bitung-bentena Coast, North Sulawesi province, Indonesia for alginate product using satellite remote sensing. Procedia Environ Sci 2016;33:553-61.
29. Mushollaeni W. The physicochemical characteristics of sodium alginate from Indonesian brown seaweeds. Afr J Food Sci 2011;5:349-52.
30. Perryman SE, Lapong I, Mustafa A, Sabang R, Rimmer MA. Potential of metal contamination to affect the food safety of seaweed (Caulerpa spp.) cultured in coastal ponds in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Aquac Rep 2017;5:27-33.
31. Indrani DJ, Budianto E. A study of extraction and characterization of alginates obtained from brown macroalgae Sargassum duplicssatum and Sargassum crassifolium from Indonesia. Dent J 2013;46:65-70.
32. Chandrasekar A, Sagadevan S, Dakshnamoorthy A. Synthesis and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) using the wet chemical technique. Int J Phys Sci 2013;8:1639-45.
33. Bouyer E, Gitzhofer F, Boulos MI. Morphological study of hydroxyaatite nanocrystal suspension. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2000;11:523-31.
34. Shi X, Wang Y, Wei K, Ren L, Lai C. Self-assembly of nano-hydroxyapatite in mesoporous silica. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2008;19:2933-40.