CRYPTOSOMES: A REVOLUTIONARY BREAKTHROUGH IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY
The vesicular drug delivery systems are promising approaches to overthrown the problems of drugs having lesser bioavailability and rapid elimination from the body. The four type of lipid based drug delivery systems are: solid-lipid particulate system, emulsion based system, solid lipid tablet and vesicular system. Cryptosomes, a novel emerging vesicular drug delivery system which can overcome the disadvantages associated with conventional drug delivery systems like high stability, increased bioavailability, sustained release, decreased elimination of rapidly metabolizable drugs etc. The word Cryptosome was orginated from Greek word â€˜â€™Cryptoâ€™â€™ means hidden and â€˜â€™Somaâ€™â€™ means body. It is formed from the mixture of phospholipids like distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine-polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) with distearoylphosphatidylcholine. These entire information regarding its origin and formation is explained in Dinesh Kumar et al. Vesicular systems symbolizes the use of vesicles in the different fields as carrier system or additives. This review disclose various vesicular drug delivery system and point out the advancement of cryptosome in the world of drug delivery.
This review would help researchers involved in the field of vesicular drug delivery.
2. Weiner N, Martin F, Riaz M. Liposome a drug delivery system. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1989;15:1523â€“24.
3. Dinesh Kumar, Deepak Sharma, Gurmeet Singh, Mankaran Singh, Mahendra Singh Rathore. Lipoidal soft hybrid bio carriers of supramolecular construction for drug delivery. ISRN Pharm 2012;1:14.
4. Immordino ML, Dosio F, Cattel L. Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential. Int J Nanomed 2006;1:297â€“315.
5. Blume G, Cevc G. Drug-carrier and stability properties of the long-lived lipid vesicles, cryptosomes, in vitro and in vivo. J Liposome Res 1992;2:355-68.
6. Blume G, Cevc G. Molecular mechanism of the lipid vesicle longevity in vivo. Biochim Bio Phys Acta 1993;1146:157-68.
7. Allen TM, Chonn A. Large unilamellar liposomes with low uptake into the reticuloendothelial system. FEBS Lett 1987;223:42-6.
8. Atsuhide Mori, Aleksander L, Klibanov, Vladimir P, Torchilin, Leaf Huang. Influence of stearic barrier activity of amphipathic polyethyleneglycol and ganglioside GM1 on the circulation time of liposomes and on the target binding of immunoliposomes in vivo. FEBS Lett 1991;284:263.
9. Blume G, Cevc G. Circulation time of cryptosomes. Bio Chem Bio Phys Acta 1993;1146:157-68.
10. Allen TM, Hansen C, Rutledge J. Liosomes with prolonged circulation times-factors affecting uptake by reticuloendothelial cell and other tissues. Bio Chim Bio Phys Acta 1989;981:27.
11. Senior J, Delgado C, Fisher D, Tilcock C, Gregoriadis G. Influence of surface hydrophilicity of liposomes on their interaction with plasma protein and clearance from the circulation: studies with polyethylene glycol-coated vesicle. Bio Chim Bio Phys Acta 1991;1062:77.
12. Biju SS, Sushama Talegaonkar, Mishra PR, Khar RK. Vesicular system an overview. Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68:141-53.
13. Vingerhoeds MH, Haisma HJ, Van Muijen M, Van De Rijt RB, Crommelin DJ, Storm G. A new application for liposomes in cancer therapy, immuno-liposomes bearing enzymes (immuno-enzymosomes) for site-specific activation of prodrugs. FEBS Lett 1993;336:485â€“90.
14. Schwendener RA. Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances. Ther Adv Vaccines 2014;2:159â€“82.
15. Rajkamal M, Arwind S, Sandeep A. Exploring potential of ufasomes as topical/transdermal delivery systems: reviewing decade of research. Am J PharmTech Res 2012;2:126â€“37.
16. Kretschmar M, Amselem S, Zawoznik E, Mosbach K, Dietz A, Hof H, et al. Efficient treatment of murine systemic infection with Candida albicans using amphotericin B incorporated in nanosize range particles (emulsomes). Mycoses 2001;44:281â€“6.
17. Baranowski P, Karolewicz B, Gajda M, Pluta J. Ophthalmic drug dosage forms: characterization and research methods. Sci World Jâ€Ž 2014;1:1-14.
18. Patel J, Patel K, Patel H, Patel B, Patel P. Aquasomes: a self assembling nanobiopharmaceutical carrier system for bio-active molecules: a review. Int J Pharm Res Scholars 2012;1:11â€“21.
19. Jain SS, Jagtap PS, Dand NM, Jadhav KR, Kadam VJ. Aquasomes: a novel drug carrier. J Appl Pharm Sci 2012;2:184â€“92.
20. Gao X, Huang L. Cationic liposome-mediated gene transfer. Gene Ther 1995;2:710-22.
21. Gangwar S, Singh S, Garg G. Ethosomes: a novel tool for drug delivery through the skin. J Pharm Res 2010;3:688â€“91.
22. Benvegnu T, Lemiegre L, Cammas Marion S. New generation of liposomes called archaeosomes based on natural or synthetic archaeal lipids as innovative formulations for drug delivery. Recent Pat Drug Delivery Formul 2009;3:206â€“20.
23. Hayward JA, Levine DM, Neufeld L, Simon SR, Johnston DS, Chapman D. Polymerized liposomes as stable oxygen-carriers. FEBS Lett 1985;187:261â€“6.
24. Walker SA, Kennedy MT, Zasadzinski JA. Encapsulation of bilayer vesicles by self-assembly. Nature 1997;387:61â€“4.
25. Dhanalakshmi V, Nimal TR, Sabitha M, Raja Biswas, Jayakumar Rangasamy. Skin and muscle permeating antibacterial nanoparticles for treating Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds. J Biomed Mater Res B 2016;104:797-807.
26. Petit Frere C, Clingen PH, Grewe M, Krutmann J, Roza L, Arlett CF, et al. Induction of interleukin-6 production by ultraviolet radiation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes and in a human keratinocyte cell line is mediated by DNA damage. J Invest Dermatol 1998;111:354-9.
27. Priyanka Rathore, Gaurav Swami. Planterosome: a potential phyto-phospholipid carrier for the bioavailability enhancement of herbal extracts. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:737-55.
28. Mayank Gangwar, Ragini Singh, RK Goel, Gopal Nath. Recent advances in various emerging vesicular systems. An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:S1176-S1188.
29. Cuppoletti J, Mayhew E, Zobel CR, Jung CY. Erythrosomes: large proteoliposomes derived from crosslinked human erythrocyte cytoskeletons and exogenous lipid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981;78:2786â€“90.
30. Ciobanu M, Heurtault B, Schultz P, Ruhlmann C, Muller CD, Frisch B. Layersome: development and optimization of stable liposomes as drug delivery system. Int J Pharm 2007;344:154-7.
31. Arshia Berry, Thomas Charles Guest, Tanveer Naved. Phytosome from herbal drug delivery to targeted clinical therapy. World Res J Pharm Res 2016;5:582-98.
32. Chambin O, Jannin V. Interest of multifunctional lipid excipients: case of gelucire 44/14. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2005;31:527-34.
33. Gupta KS, Nappinnai M, Gupta VRM. Formulation and evaluation of topical meloxicam niosomal gel. Int J Biopharm 2010;1:7-13.
34. Kulthe VV, Chaudhari PD. Solubility enhancement of etoricoxib by solid dispersions prepared by spray drying technique. Int J Pharm Res 2011;45:248-58.
35. Vilhemsen T, Eliasen H, Schaefer T. Effect of a melt agglomeration process on agglomerates containing solid dispersions. Int J Pharma 2005;303:132-42.
36. Azeem A, Anwer MK, Talegaonkar S. Niosomes in sustained and targeted drug delivery: some recent advances. J Drug Target 2009;17:671-89.
37. Gill B, Singh J, Sharma V, Hari Kumar SL. Emulsomes: an emerging vesicular drug delivery system. Asian J Pharm 2012;6:87-94.
38. Barry BW. Novel mechanisms and devices to enable successful transdermal drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci 2001;14:101-14.
39. Devaraj GN, Parakh SR, Devraj R, Apte SS, Rao BR, Rambhau D. Release studies on niosomes containing fatty alcohols as bilayer stabilizers instead of cholesterol. J Colloid Interface Sci 2002;251:360-5.
40. Woodle MC, Lasic DD. Sterically stabilized liposomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992;1113:171-99.
41. Kidd, Parris M. A superior protectant against liver damage. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:258â€“74.
42. Kirby C, Clarke J, Gregoriadis G. Effect of cholesterol content of small unilamellar liposomes on their stability in vivo and in vitro. Biochem J 1980;186:591-8.
43. Banerjee A, Roychoudhury J, Ali N. Stearylamine-bearing cationic liposomes kill Leishmania parasites through surface exposed negatively charged phosphatidylserine. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;61:103-10.
44. Sudhamani T, Priyadarisini N, Radhakrishna. Proniosomesâ€“a promising drug carriers. Int J PharmTech Res 2010;2:1446-54.
45. Harasym TO, Cullis PR, Bally MB. Intratumor distribution of doxorubicin following I. V. Administration of drug encapsulated in egg phosphatidylcholine cholesterol liposomes. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 997;40:309-17.
46. Sek L, Porter CJH, Charman WN. Characterisation and quantification of medium chain and long chain triglycerides and their in vitro digestion products, by HPTLC coupled with in situ densitometric analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2001;25:651-61.
47. Ruckmani K, Sankar V. Formulation and optimization of zidovudineniosomes. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2010;11:1119-27.
48. Venkatesan N, Vyas SP. Polysaccharide coated liposomes for oral immunization: development and characterization. Int J Pharm 2000;203:169-77.
49. Hofland HEJ, Boustra JA, Verhoef JC, Buckton G, Chowdry BZ, Ponec M, et al. Safety aspects of non-ionic surfactant vesicles a toxicity study related to the physicochemical characteristics of non-ionic surfactants. J Pharm Pharmacol 1992;44:287-94.
50. Hood E, Gonzalez M, Plaas A, Strom J, Van Auker M. Immunotargeting of nonionic surfactant vesicles to inflammation. Int J Pharm 2007;339:222-30.
51. Hope MJ, Bally MB, Webb G, Cullis P. Production of large unilamellar vesicles by rapid extrusion procedure: characterization of size distribution, trapped volume, and ability to maintain a membrane potential. Biochim Biophys Acta 1985;812:55-65.
52. Mujoriya R, Bodla RB, Dhamande K, Singh D, Patle L. Niosomal drug delivery system: the magic bullet. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:20-3.
53. Salome Amarachi Chime, Ikechukwu V Oniyishi. Lipid based drug delivery systems (LDDS), recent advances and applications of lipids in drug delivery. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013;7:3034-59.
54. Batzri S, Korn ED. Single bilayer liposomes prepared without sonication. Biochim Biophys Acta 1973;298:1015-9.
55. Fry DW, White JC, Goldman ID. Rapid separation of low molecular weight solutes from liposomes without dilution. Anal Biochem 1978;90:809-15.
56. Domazou A, Luisi PL. Size distribution of spontaneously formed liposomes by the alcohol injection method. J Liposome Res 2002;12:205-20.
57. Fang JY, Hong CT, Chiu WT, Wang YY. Effect of liposomes and niosomes on skin permeation of enoxacin. Int J Pharm 2001;219:61-72.
58. Dipali SR, Kulkarni SB, Betageri GV. Comparative study of separation of non-encapsulated drug from unilamellar liposomes by various methods. J Pharm Pharmacol 1996;48:1112-5.
59. Papahadjopoulos D, Cowden M, Kimelberg H. Role of cholesterol in membranes, effects on phospholipid protein interactions, membrane permeability and enzymatic activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1973;330:8-26.
60. Bakker Woundenberg IA, Ten Kate MT, Guo L, Working P, Mouton JW. Improved efficacy of ciprofloxacin administered in polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes for treatment of klebsiella pneumonia causing pneumonia in rats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45:1487â€“92.
61. Gabizon A, Catane R, Uziely B, Safra T, Cohen R, Martin F, et al. Prolonged circulation time and enhanced accumulation in malignant exudates of doxorubicin encapsulated in polyethylene-glycol coated liposomes. Cancer 1994;54:987-92.
62. Kanika. Recent technical advances in emerging vesicular systems. Int J Pharm Prof Res 2012;3:568-84.
63. Oku N, Namba Y. Long-circulating liposomes. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 1994;11:231-70.
64. Chen M, Chen J, Hou T, Fang Y, Sun W, Hu R, Cai B. Effect of phospholipid composition on pharmaceutical properties and antitumor activity of stealth liposomes containing brucine. Zhongguo Zhong Yao ZaZhi 2011;36:864-7.
65. Lee JS, Ankone M, Pieters E, Schiffelers RM, Hennink WE, Feijen J. Circulation kinetics and biodistribution of dual-labeled polymersomes with modulated surface charge in tumor-bearing mice: comparison with stealth liposomes. J Controlled Release 2011;155:282-8.
66. Ruo Jing Li, Tian W, Ying X, Du J, Guo J, Men Y, et al. All-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes prevent the relapse of breast cancer arising from the cancer stem cells. J Controlled Release 2011;49:281-91.
67. Xiang Y, Wu Q, Liang L, Wang X, Wang J, Zhang X, et al. Chlorotoxin-modified stealth liposomes encapsulating levodopa for the targeting delivery against the Parkinsonâ€™s disease in the MPTP-induced mice model. J Drug Target 2012;20:67-75.
68. Maya S, Sabitha M, Shanthikumar VN, Jayakumar R. Phytomedicine-loaded polymeric nanomedicines: potential cancer therapeutics. Adv Polym Sci 2013;254:203-39.
69. Shefrin S, Sreelaxmi CS, Vijayan V, Nair SC. Enzymosomes: a rising effectual tool for targeted drug delivery system. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:1-9.
70. Revathy B Menon, Lakshmi VS, Aiswarya MU, Keerthana Raju, Sreeja C Nair. Porphysomes-a paradigm shift in targeted drug delivery. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:1-6.
71. Sabitha M, Sanoj Rejinold N, Nair A, Lakshmanan VK, Nair SV, Jayakumar R. Development and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil loaded chitin nanogels for treatment of skin cancer. Carbohydr Polym 2013;91:48-57.
72. Vyas SP, Singh SP, Sihorkar. Ligand-receptor-mediated drug delivery: an emerging paradigm in cellular drug targeting. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2001;18:1-76.
73. Yunus Y Khan, Vasanti Suvarana. Liposomes containing phytochemicals for cancer treatmentâ€“an update. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9:20-4.
74. Subash Chandran MP, Pandey VP. Formulation and evaluation of glimepiride-loaded liposomes by ethanolin injection method. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:192-5.
75. Dheeraj Nagpal, Nidhi Agarwal, Deepshikha Katare. Evaluation of liposomal gossypin in animal models of epilepsy. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:247-51.
76. Magdy IM, Amna MA Makky, Menna Abdellatif. Formulation and characterization of ethosomes bearing vancomycin hydrochloride for transdermal delivery. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:190-4.