EFFECT OF WHITE TEA EXTRACT IN VITRO AGAINST CARIOGENIC AND PERIODONTAL BACTERIA
Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of white tea maceration extract against pathogenic oral bacteria
Streptococcus mutans (serotype F), Porphyromonas gingivalis (strain ATCC 33277), and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (phenotype A); the
properties of this product were also tested against non-pathogenic Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556) for comparison.
Methods: A maceration extract was made from white tea collected from West Java, and the infusion was prepared at concentrations of 5â€“80%. The
selected strains of each microbial species were cultured under anaerobic conditions, and equalized standard dilutions of the cultured bacteria were
used for testing. Dilution and diffusion tests were conducted to quantify the antimicrobial properties of white tea extract (WTE) against the bacteria.
Results: The dilution test results showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 40% of WTE against S. mutans, P. gingivalis, and
A. actinomycetemcomitans and 80% against S. sanguis. The minimum bactericidal concentration was 80% for all tested bacterial strains.
Conclusion: The diffusion test results showed higher inhibition with increasing extract concentration; however, the difference between concentrations
of 40% and 80% was small or negligible, except for A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results imply the clear, acute antimicrobial effect of WTE against
the tested oral anaerobic pathogens in vitro. Considering that these effects were concentration dependent and that white tea has the highest content
of antimicrobial phenolic compounds among all grades of (green) tea, white tea or WTE may be useful for inhibiting the growth of pathogens involved
in the development of caries and/or periodontal disease.
sinensis L.). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995;39:2375-7.
2. Toda M, Okubo S, Hiyoshi R, Shimamura T. The bactericidal activity of
tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 1989;8:123-5.
3. Toda M, Okubo S, Ohnishi R, Shimamura T. Antibacterial and
bactericidal activities of Japanese green tea. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi
4. Toda M, Okubo S, Hara Y, Shimamura T. Antibacterial and bactericidal
activities of tea extracts and catechins against methicillin resistant
Staphylococcus aureus. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi 1991;46:839-45.
5. Toda M, Okubo S, Ikigai H, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Hara Y, et al. The
protective activity of tea catechins against experimental infection by
vibrio cholerae O1. Microbiol Immunol 1992;36:999-1001.
6. Ahn YJ, Kawamura T, Kim M, Yamamoto T, Mitsuoka T. Tea
polyphenols: Selective growth inhibitors of Clostridium spp. Agric Biol
7. Ahn YJ, Sakanaka S, Kim M, Kawamura T, Fujisawa T, Mitsuoka T.
Effects of green tea extracts on growth of intestinal bacteria. Microb
Ecol Health Dis 1990;3:335-8.
8. Fukai K, Ishigami T, Hara Y. Antibacterial activity of tea polyphenols
against phytopathogenic bacteria. Agric Biol Chem 1991;55:1895-7.
9. Hara Y, Ishigami T. Antibacterial activities of tea polyphenols
against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. J Jpn Soc Food Sci Technol
10. Hara Y, Watanabe M. Antibacterial activity of tea polyphenols against
Clostridium botulinum. J Jpn Soc Food Sci Technol 1989;36:951-5.
11. Horiuchi Y, Toda M, Okubo S, Hara Y, Shimamura T. Protective activity
of tea and catechins against Bordetella pertussis. J Jpn Assoc Infect Dis
12. Stoicov C, Saffari R, Houghton J. Green tea inhibits helicobacter
growth in vivo and in vitro. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009;33:473-8.
13. Almajano MP, Carbo R, Jimenez JA, Gordon MH. Antioxidant and
antimicrobial activities of tea infusions. Food Chem 2008;108:55-63.
14. Tsunoda T, Yamazaki T, Mukai I. Oral Preparations Containing
Catechins for Periodontitis and Halitosis Control. Japanese Patent JP
15. Hattori M, Kusumoto IT, Namba T, Ishigami T, Hara Y. Effect of
tea polyphenols on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferase from
Streptococcus mutans. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1990;38:717-20.
16. Kawamura J, Takeo T. Antibacterial activity of tea catechin to
Streptococcus mutans. J Jpn Soc Food Sci Technol 1989;36:463-7.
17. Muroi H, Kubo I. Combination effects of antibacterial compounds in
green tea flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J Agric Food Chem
18. Onishi M, Ozaki F, Yoshino F, Murakami Y. Experimental evidence
of caries preventive activity of nonfluoride component of tea. J Dent
19. Onishi M, Shimura N, Nakamura C, Sato M. A field test on the caries
preventive effect of tea drinking. J Dent Health 1981;31:13-9.
20. Otake S, Makimura M, Kuroki T, Nishihara Y, Hirasawa M. Anticaries
effects of polyphenolic compounds from Japanese green tea. Caries Res
21. Sakanaka S, Kim M, Taniguchi M, Yamamoto T. Antibacterial
substances in Japanese green tea extract against Streptococcus mutans,
a cariogenic bacterium. Agric Biol Chem 1989;53:2307-11.
22. Ryu E, Blenden DC, Wendall D. The inhibition of growth of selected
bacteria by incorporating powdered tea in the medium. Int J Zoonoses
23. Stagg GV. Tea=the elements of a cuppa. Nutr Bull 1980;29:233-45.
24. Senthilkumar SR, Sivakumar T, Arulmozhi KT, Mythili N. Gas
chromatography-mass spectroscopy evaluation of bioactive
phytochemicals of commercial green teas (Camellia sinensis) of India.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:278-82.
25. Ambarwati NSS, Elya B, Malik A, Hanafi M. Phytochemical and
antimicrobial studies on Garcinia lattissima Miq. Fruit extract. Asian J
Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:230-2.
26. Agrawal PK. Antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of leaf extract
of medicinal fruit plants. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:131-6.
27. Kulandhaivel M, Palaniswamy M. In vitro antimicrobial activity of
Camellia sinensis and Myristica fragrans against Staphylococcus
aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans. Int J Pharm Biol
28. Ramadon D, Pramesti SS, Anwar E. Formulation, stability test and in vitro
penetration study of transethosomal gel containing green tea (Camellia
sinensis L. Kuntze) leaves extract. Int J Appl Phamr 2017;9:91-6.